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Vice-President, Cumberland and Westmorland 
Antiquarian and Archaeological Society. 

Frontispiece, vol. xi. 

See p. 41 











The Council of the Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian 
and Archaeological Society, and the Editor of their Transactions, 
desire that it should be understood that they are not responsible for 
any statements or opinions expressed in their Transactions : the 
Authors of the several papers being alone responsible for the same. 




Patrons : 

*The Right Hon. the Lord Muncaster, M.P., Lord Lieutenant of Cumber- 
*The Right Hon. the Lord Hothfield, Lord Lieutenant of Westmorland. 
*The Right Rev. the Lord Bishop of Carlisle. 

President & Editor : 
*The Worshipful Chancellor Ferguson, m.a., ll.m., f.s.a. 

Vice-Presidents : 

James Atkinson, Esq. 
* E. B. W. Balme, Esq. 
*The Right Rev. the Bishop of 
The Earl of Bective, M.P. 
*W. Browne, Esq. 
*The Very Rev. the Dean of 

*The Earl of Carlisle. 

* James Cropper, Esq. 

* H. F. Curwen, Esq. 
*Robt. Ferguson, Esq. F.S.A. 

* G. J. Johnson, Esq. 
*Hon. W. Lowther, M.P. 
*H. P. Senhouse, Esq. 

* M. W. Taylor, Esq. M.D., F.S.A. 

Elected Members of Council: 

W. B. Arnison, Esq., Penrith. I C. J. Ferguson, Esq., F.S.A., Carlisle 

Rev. R. Bower, M.A., Carlisle. T. F. FAnson, Esq.,M.D.,Whitehaven. 

Rev. W.S.Calverley, F.S.A., Aspatria Rev. T. Lees, M.A., F.S.A., Wreay. 
J.F.CROSTHWAiTE,Esq.,F.S.A.,Keswick Rev.Canon MATTHEWS,M.A.,AppIeby 
H. Swainson Cowper, Esq., F.S.A. Rev - H. Whitehead, M.A., Lanercost. 
Hawkshead. I Robert J. Whitwell, Esq., Kendal. 

A uditors : 
James G. Gandy, Esq., Heaves | Frank Wilson, Esq., Kendal. 

Treasurer : 
W. D. Crewdson, Esq., Helme Lodge, Kendal. 

Secretary : 
*Mr. T. WILSON, Aynam Lodge, Kendal. 

N.B. — The members of the Council and the Officers where names are marked 
with an *, form a Committee for carrying out the provisions of the Act for the 
Protection of Ancient Monuments. 



1. Penrith : Plumpton, Newton Reigny July 4th, 18S9. 
Blencow Hall, Johnby Hall, Green- 

thwaite Hall, Dacre Church and 

Castle, .... July 5th, 1889. 

2. Ambleside : Steam Yacht excursion 

on Windermere, Hawkshead 
Hall and Church. . . Sep. 4th, 1888. 

Fellfoot, Wrynose, Hardknott Camp, 

Eskdale Church, . . . Sep. 5th, 1889. 

3. Orton, Raisbeck, Ashy, Ormside, . July 3rd, 1890. 
Appleby, Bewley Castle, Bolton 

Church, Redlands Camp, Kirkby- 
Thore, Maiden Way, Howgill 
Castle, Longmarton, . . July 4th, 1890. 

4. Lancaster Church and Castle, Hey- 

sham Old Hall and Church, . Sep. 18th, 1890. 
Halton Church and Cross, Gress- 
ingham Church, Melling Church, 
Hornby Church, Claughton Hall 
and Church, Caton Church, . Sep. 19th, 1890. 


I. Law Ting at Fell Foot, Little Langdale, Westmorland 
By H. Swainson Cowper, F.S.A. 
II. Hawkshead Hall. By H. Swainson Cowper. F.S.A. 
III. S. Catherine's Chapel, Eskdale : a reason for its dedica 

cation. By the Rev. Thomas Lees, M.A., F.S.A. 
IV. Appleby Old Bridge. By the Rev. Canon Mathews 
Excursions and Proceedings. 
V. On a supposed Interment of a Horse with Human Re 
mains at Lanercost. By the Rev. H. J. Bulkeley 
VI. Some Manorial Halls in the Barony of Greystoke. By 
M. Waistell Taylor, M.D., F.S.A. 
VII. Gold Armlet found in Westmorland. By Ellen K. Ware 
VIII. Recent Roman Discoveries, 1889. By The President 
IX. Potter's Marks on Roman Pottery found in Carlisle. By 
The President. .... 

X. The Siege of Carlisle, in 1644-5. General Leslie's 
Works. By the Worshipful Chancellor Ferguson, 
F.S.A., President of the Society. 
XL The Seal of the Statute Merchant of Carlisle. By the 
Worshipful Chancellor Ferguson, F.S.A., President 
of the Society ..... 
XII. Fragments of a British Cross and many Early English 
and other Grave Covers found in Bromfield Church 
yard. By the Rev. W. S. Calverley, F.S.A. 

XIII. Church Bells in Leath Ward, No. 2. By the Rev. H 

Whitehead. ..... 

XIV. Keswick Town Clock Bell. By the Rev. H. Whitehead 











XV. Visitations of the Plague in Cumberland and West- 
morland. By Henry Barnes, M.D.. F.R.S.E. 158 
XVI. Mayburgh and King Arthur's Round Table. By 

C. W. Dymond, F.S.A. . . .187 

XVII. An Instance of Infant Marriage in the Diocese of 

Carlisle. By Mrs. Henry Ware. . . 220 

XVIII. The Dacre Stone. By the Rev. Canon Mathews. 226 
XIX. Pre-Norman Cross Fragments, at Aspatria, Work- 
ington, Distington, Bridekirk, Gilcrux, Plumb- 
land, and Isell. By the Rev. W. S. Calverley, 
F.S.A., Vicar of Aspatria. . . . 230 

XX. The Dalston Transcript of 1589-1590. By the Rev. 

James Wilson, M. A., Vicar of Dalston. . 238 

XXI. The Parish Registers of Orton, Westmorland. By 

J. Holme Nicholson, M.A. . . . 250 

XXII. Notes on the Roman Itinera in North Westmorland 
compared with modern measurements. By the 
Rev. Canon Mathews. . . . 2G6 

XXIII. The Appleby Chained Books. By Charles Robert 

Rivington. ..... 271 

XXIV. The Appleby Charters. By W. Hewitson, Town 

Clerk of Appleby. , 279 

XXV. The Parish of Stanwix. By the Rev. J. R. Wood, 

M.A. , Vicar of Stanwix. .... 286 

XXVI. Note on Sandford's History of Cumberland. By 

George Watson. . 290 

XXVII. The Brough Idol. By F. Haverfield, M.A. . 296 

XXVIII. Orion Old Hall, or Petty Hall, Orton. By Fred B. 

Garnet, C.B. ..... 300 

Excursions and Proceedings. . . . 305 

XXIX. The Roman Camp on Kreiginthorpe (Crackenthorpe) 

Common, near Kirkbythore. By The President. 312 

XXX. Kirkby Thore Church. By the Rev. John Heelis, 

M.A., Rector. ..... 314 

XXXI. The Bears at Dacre. By the Worshipful Chancellor 

Ferguson, F.S.A. , President of the Society, . 323 
XXXII. An Earthwork at Little Asby. By the Rev. Canon 

Mathews. . . . . -329 

XXXIII. The Baptismal Fonts of the Rural Deaneries of 
Gosforth, and Whitehaven. By the Rev. J. 
Wilson, M.A., Vicar of Dalston. . 335 




The Reeans of High Furness. By the Rev. T. 

Ellwood, M.A., Rector of Torver. 
Some Illustrations of Home Life in Lonsdale North 

of the Sands, in the 17th and iSth Centuries. 

By John Fell, Dane Ghyll. 
The House of Percy, entitled Barons Lucy of 

Cockermouth. By Geo. T. Clark, F.S.A. 
The Hudlestons of Hutton John, the Hudlestons of 

Kelston, now of Hutton John, and the Hudlestons 

of Whitehaven. By the late W. Jackson, F.S.A. 

with an Introduction by W. Hudleston of Hutton 

John. . 

In Memoriam. 





p. So. 



P- 93- 



At the alteration of the chancel lately, the Rev. J. C. 
Pigott, vicar, discovered beneath the altar, the lower part 
of a head, being the boss, the greater part of two of the 
arms and a quarter of the wheel ; on placing the casts 
and the newly-found stone together, more than half the 
cross head was revealed. It resembles the Dearham 
Standing Cross, but it is much smaller, very roughly 
worked and apparently unfinished. This cross has been 
reproduced as a foot stone to the grave of the late H. A. 
Spedding, of Mirehouse, in Bassenthwaite churchyard, 
with a copy of the Dearham Standing Cross as a head- 

The Plumbland triskele fragment was walled into the 
church tower at the time of the rebuilding and has re- 
mained unnoticed. It bears a rude spiral running scroll 
between pieces of plaitwork of divided strands, having 
triskele signs, 8 shaped figure, bosses, and svastika-like 
raised surface between the strands, and points I think to 
a Teutonic settlement at a very early time. 

These and other remains when illustrated and thus 
brought together, for comparison, &c. may give valuable 
testimony to a history which has so far only been written 
in stone. 

The evidence of the various settlements of Northmen 
and Teutons in Strathclyde, as well as that of the earliest 
missions amongst the native races cannot fail to be in- 
teresting and useful. 


Art. XX. — The Dalston Transcript of 1589- 1590. By the 

Rev. James Wilson, M.A., Vicar of Dalston. 
Communicated at Appleby, July 3rd, 1890. 

IN the year 1887 the attention of the Carlisle Diocesan 
Conference was directed to the desirability of com- 
pleting " the duplicate copies of our church registers in the 
Bishop's Registry," with the result that a committee was 
appointed " to consider the whole question of parish 
registers and to report to the next Conference." 

In making their report, the committee divided " the 
duplicate copies or transcripts of registers, as they are more 
properly called, now in the Bishop's Registry, into two 
classes," viz. transcripts made " prior to the passing of 
Rose's Act (52 Geo. iii. c. 146) which came in force in 
1813 " which are on paper, and transcripts made since 
1813 which are on parchment. On the present condition 
of the paper transcripts the report says : — 

These transcripts under the Canon law are of great value and have 
been at different times the turning point in important suits at law. 
Those belonging to the ancient Diocese of Carlisle, which with few 
exceptions are extant from about the time of the Restoration, are at 
present well kept in proper cupboards, and tied up in brown paper 

But the most important feature of the report is the 
recommendation that certain measures should be taken 
to make these transcripts more accessible, and less liable 
to injury or accident. 

The committee are of opinion that it would be a most valuable under- 
taking, if in the case of each parish, its patron, leading proprietors, or 
other persons interested, would cause to be mounted and bound the 
loose sheets which constitute these ancient records, after the manner 



in which the transcripts of the parishes of Newton Reigny, and of 
Lanercost have been treated. They would then become more gener- 
ally accessible, and more easily handled ; the sheets could not get out 
of consecutive order, or into wrong bundles. * 

Pursuant to this report of the committee, which was 
adopted by the Diocesan Conference of 1888, I received 
in the November of that year the following communica- 
tion from the Bishop of the Diocese : — 

With reference to the recommendation of the committee on parish 
registers on page 8 of the Conference report, I shall be happy to bear 
the expense of mounting and binding the transcripts of the Dalston 
Registers, if you on your part look after the process. Perhaps you 
would communicate with Mr. Mounsey on the subject. 

It is not necessary to say that I hailed his Lordship's 
offer with pleasure and took steps at once to have his 
wishes carried out. I made application to our courteous 
Registrar who put me in possession of a bundle of loose 
papers of all shapes and sizes which I brought home 
for examination. They did not cause much trouble as I 
found them in excellent order, and almost ready to put 
into the hands of the binder. 

These transcripts cover a period, with few omissions, 
from 1666 to 1812. There is not much to be gleaned in 
the way of local information, except the bare record of 
baptisms, marriages, and burials : the only variation is 
certain presentments for the usual offences, in 1678, 1681 
and 1692. But the chief feature of the bundle is a soli- 
rary transcript, worn, water-stained, dilapidated and al- 
most illegible, bearing date 1589-1590, which, as far as 
contemporary knowledge goes, is unique in our Bishop's 
Registry. It is apparently in the handwriting of Thomas 

* Carlisle Diocesan Report for iSSS, pp. 8-9. 



Nicholson."' 1 the vicar t (1586-1594), who signs his name in 
two places and it is witnesssed by six of the parishioners, 
doubtless churchwardens 1 each of them making " his 

The first sight of this document stimulated my curio- 
sity, as its form and condition seemed to evidence more 
vicissitudes than any of its fellows. It was neatly folded 
like a lamp-spill and must have remained in that shape 
for generations, as when opened out it was ready to fall 
into a dozen strips and looked as shattered as the colours 
of some crack regiment which had passed through many 
campaigns. The character of the writing hastened my eyes 
to the heading of the paper, where I read : — 

The names of all those that have bene b...ed w'hin the pishe of 
Dalston from the x th of Julie in the yeare of God 1589 unto this xxxi 
of Julie in the year of God 1590. 

* Joseph Nicolson, who wrote the account of Dalston for N. & B's History 
of Cumberland and Westmorland, spells this name " Nicolson" like his own ; 
it may have been from the known or fancied reason of kinship. In the register as 
well as in the transcript it is spelt as above. Another vicar William Nicolson 
(1727-30) was the historian's elder brother; both sons of John Nicolson, of Hawks- 
dale Hall, and buried with other members of this family, on the south side of 
Dalston Chancel, where a mural tablet records the particulars. 
f The commencement of his vicariate is thus noted in the register: — 

Baptismes noted by Syr Thomas 

Nicholson a primo eius ingressu in 

hanc vicariam post obitu Edgar 

quis fuit 13 Septemb 15S6 
His burial is recorded under the date 1594 " Octobris iy Thomas Nicholson vicar." 
It will be seen that there is a slight error (errors of this kind are numerous) in 
the county histories which give 1596, arising no doubt from a note further down 
the page of the register : — 

Burialls noted by Mr. Robert 

Collier vicar of Dalston 

post Nicholson defunct 11 

There was usually an interregnum of a year or two between successive vicars, 
the Bishop's chaplains undertaking the charge. Is it true that they were licensed 
to the vicar, acting in the double capacity of curates of Dalston and chaplains of 
Rose ? 

J The traditional number of churchwardens for the parish of Dalston is still six, 
that is, one for each township. The incumbent has not the luxury of nominating 
any of them ; they are all elected in vestry by the parishioners. This has been the 
custom from time immemorial. 



It did not take much reflection to convince me that I had 
unearthed an interesting document, which might turn out, 
as far as this diocese was concerned, to be an important 

In the first place, it is a transcript which must have been 
made from the original paper register * ordered in 1538 by 
Thomas Cromwell, King Henry's minister, but super- 
seded t in 1597 by the parchment books now in the 
parish chest. The earlier entries in the first volume of 
these parchment registers are copied from the same source 
and agree substantially with the transcript in question. 
It stands alone : it has no predecessor : it has no succes- 
sor till 1666. How it has escaped when those of the 
succeeding seventy-six years have perished, and where 
it came from, when the diocesan registry was overhauled 
and arranged, one cannot tell; at all events, its existence 
is certain, but to explain why so early a transcript should 
ever exist at all — hie labor, hoc opus. 

Writers on parish registers seem to think that tran- 
scripts were originated by the canon X of 1603, or at the 
very earliest by the Elizabethan injunction of 1597. For 
instance in an article on the preservation of parish regis- 
ters in the Standard newspaper (Dec 27th, 1888), it was 
stated that 

The parish registers, as an institution, date from about 1538, and the 
transcripts were first ordered in 1597. 

This is the commonly received opinion, gathered no doubt 
from the well-known text-books, on the history of " Parish 

*The injunction is found, among other places, in Bp. Burnet's Collection of 
Records, vol. i. pt. 2, pp. 274-9, Oxford edition, 1S1C. 

f The mandate of 1507 was voted by the Canterbury convocation, sanctioned 
by the Queen in council, and made applicable utrique Provincial, tarn Cantua- 
riensi quam Eboracensi. The change from paper fe.v veteribus libris cartaceisj 
to parchment (libri ad Ininc usum destinati ex pergameno sumptibus parockiano* 
rum in. posterum conjicianlnr) is emphasized in the last article (Sparrow's 
Collection of Articles fisc, p. 256, black letter edition, 16S4). 

+ Canon 70, which embodies this particular of the 1597 injunction. 



Registers in England," by Southerden Burn and Chester 
Waters, who give no hint that such a practice existed 
prior to 1597. But it is quite evident that the current 
opinion is open to review : the Dalston document is proof 
positive against it, and shows in one instance at least that 
the custom of sending in transcripts at the Bishop's visi- 
tation was in force in this diocese some ten years before 
the injunction of 1597 was formulated by the Canterbury 

Since the discovery of the Dalston transcript the Rev. 
H. Whitehead writes to me : — 

There is another piece of evidence that in this diocese copies of the 
registers were exhibited at the visitations, even before 1597. It 
occurs in the old paper registers of Holme Cuitrani, which' has the 
following entry : — " Here endeth all the burialls w ch hapened in this 
pishe 1586. Registered by me Edward Mandeville cleri. This coppy 
of these christenings, burialls, and weddings exhibited in to the court 
at Espatyre the xix of July, 1587." This, you see, is in support of 
your opinion that what you showed me at Mr. Mounsey's office is a 
veritable transcript, perhaps the sole survivor of a lot of ancient 
transcripts no longer extant. 

But I am not dependent on the testimony of one witness, 
or the custom of one diocese. In order to make out a 
stronger case against the 1597 limit, I shall put in the box 
Mr. J. M. Cowper, well known to be interested in these 
matters, who wrote to the Standard at the close of the 
year 1S88 to rebut the statements which have been just 
quoted from that newspaper : — 

The writer of the article seems to imply that no transcripts were 
made prior to 1597. According to my experience they generally date 
back to between 1560 and 1570. I have one before me now dated 1559, 
and the series to which it belongs is nearly perfect until we approach 
the troublous times preceding the Commonwealth. From about 
1640 to the Restoration, no transcripts" were made as far as I have 
been able to ascertain. It is hardly possible to place too high a value 



on these transcripts. That mentioned above belongs to a parish 
whose first register begins in 1634. With the aid of the transcripts 
I shall issue the volume practically complete from 1559. Of course 
there was an earlier volume, but it is lost, owing to the neglect of the 
clergy, some may say who are not aware into what hands the parish 
registers fell when Cromwell was in power. Sometimes the " minis- 
ter" was the sworn " register," sometimes the parish publican, and 
some times the books were in the keeping of the clerk of the Peace 
for the county. Under these circumstances it is not to be wondered 
at that many of our earlier registers are missing. 

We have to deal, then, with the palmary fact that tran- 
scripts were an institution in England, and that the bishop 
of Carlisle required them to be sent in at his visitation 
before the Elizabethan mandate of 1597. How came 
the custom to be observed in this diocese, or any diocese 
without some authoritative sanction to compel it ? 

The history of the parish register is plain enough ; it 
originated in the monastic custom of keeping chronicles 
and chartularies, and when Henry VIII plundered the 
monasteries, Cromwell transferred t the institution to the 
parish churches and made what was hitherto only an 
intermittent custom into a compulsory law. As the parish 
register sprung naturally out of the monastic chronicle, it 
seems likely enough that transcripts grew gradually out of 
the increasing value attached, as time went on, to the 

* It is interesting to note that in the Carlisle Registry duplicates of parish regis- 
ters exist for the period of the Usurpation e.g. Lowther 1645-1660, and Clifton 
1644-1665. The Lowther documents consist of two sheets of paper written on 
both sides in the same hand and covering the period in question. The second 
sheet only is subscribed thus : — This is a true copy of the register at Lowther. 

William Smith, Ministr ibid. 

John Wilkinson, \ 

fep?sSthf Churchwardens. _ 

Chi. VVarkman, J 
The practice of Lowther and Clifton is enough to show that the omissions during 
the troubles were made up after the Restoration probably by the insistance of the 
Bishop. It is clear, then, that the earlier transcripts of this diocese did not perish 
under "the curse of Cromwell," as they must have been in existence in 16C0. 
Else why start making duplicates from the year 1644? 

f Burn's first chapter "of the origin of parish registers" should be consulted 
in order to appreciate the difference between parish registers and the chronicles, 
and obituaries kept in monasteries, {Parish Registers in England, pp. 1-16). 



parish register. This conjecture will appear sufficiently 
reasonable if we collate the different injunctions issued to 
the clergy from 1538, when registers were instituted, till 
1603, when transcripts were regulated by canon law. 
Though a digression of this kind would be foreign to my 
present purpose, it may not be considered out of place if I 
instance one example. In 1597, when the transcripts 
receive definitive recognition, the register, quorum per- 
magnus usus est, is required to be kept not merely in " one 
sure coffer with two locks and keys " as provided by the 
injunctions of Edward VI in 1547, sed in cista publico, 
eaque trifariam obserata reservandum putamus.* Thus it 
will be seen that as the value of the parish records became 
more apparent, greater precaution was taken for their 
proper custody and preservation. That the idea of tran- 
scripts was " in the air," if not actually on terra firma, may 
be gathered from the fact that a Bill was before Parlia- 
ment t in 1562-3, for the purpose of creating Diocesan 
Registries, where duplicates of the parish books might be 
kept — a project which marks a distinct advance in the 
precaution exercised to preserve the register by assuming 
the necessity of the transcript . Upon the significance of 
this abortive Bill, Mr. Whitehead says : — 

This Bill, though it never became law, serves to show that the project 
of requiring transcripts of registers to be sent to the Bishops was no 
new idea in 1597, when it took a prominent place in the constitution 
then made by the Canterbury Convocation and afterwards approved by 
the Queen in Council. Moreover the fact of the injunction originating 
with convocation shows that the Bishops and Clergy, at all events of 
the province of Canterbury, were of their own accord fully impressed 
with a sense of the use and value of the proposed transcripts. 

With this statement in mind and fortified with the experi- 

* Sparrow's Collection of Articles Zfc, p. 256. 
t Burn's History, p. 20. 



ence of Mr. Cowper as referred to above, we must look in the 
first instance to the province of Canterbury for some indi- 
cation of their existence. Nothing rises in view, as far as 
I can learn, till 1569, when archbishop Parker makes by 
commission his metropolitical visitation in consequence of 
letters from the council as " things began to look black 
and cloudy upon the realm." In this visitation the eureka 
of our search is contained. 

XIII Item. Whether your ministers keepe their registers well, and 
do present the copy of them once every yeare by indenture to the ordi- 
nary or his officers. And teache the articles of the fayth and the tenne 
commaundementes and the Lorde's prayer, as is prescribed them in 
the catechisme. * 

Having thus traced the transcripts to the diocese of 
Canterbury to find them in full swing in 1569, we have a 
step or two further to go. When do we find them in the 
northern province, and how were they introduced into the 
diocese of Carlisle ? In order to answer these questions 
we must turn to the career of Edmund Grindal, a dis- 
tinguished Cumbrian, who became bishop of London in 
1560, the year after Parker was raised to the primatial see 
of Canterbury. During the ten years they remained 
neighbouring prelates in London an intimacy sprung up 
between them which was not broken off when Grindal 
was translated to York in 1570. " About August this 
year" (1571) says Strype " the Archbishop of Canterbury 
had some business with his brother our archbishop. For 
being old friends and fellow-commissioners in ecclesias- 
tical matters, this distance brake not off their friendship ; 

*Cardwell's Documentary Annuls Vol. i. p. 35S, where the visitation articles 
are given literatim ct verbatim out of the register of archbishop Parker. Strype 
mentions the visitation but omits the articles. The above article ought to be com- 
pared with the similar article of 1560 where the archbishop makes no allusion to 
the existence of transcripts : — 

Item. Whether your ministers keep their registers well. Teach you the 

articles of the Faith and the Ten commandments, and the Lord's 

The articles of the 15G0 visitation are found in Strype's Parker, Book ii, Appendix 
xi, p. 19, folio edition, 171 1. 



now he sent to him a book * of articles and discipline, season- 
able for his intended visitation." These articles Grindal 
did not use in their entirety, some of them in his judgment 
incurring Premunire, f not having been " ratified by her 
majesty's royal assent in scriptis:" he preferred to formulate 
injunctions of his own according to the necessities and 
lequirements of his province. 

In May 1571 he commenced " his metropolitical visita- 
tion of the province of York as well to the clergye as to 
the laytye of the same province." Amongst the articles of 
this visitation, twenty-five in number, we find that tran- 
scripts of the parish registers were enjoined : 

16 Item. Ye shall keep well the registers of all weddings, burials, 
and christenings within your parish, according to the order pre- 
scribed in the Queen's Majesty's injunctions and shall present a copy 
of them every year once, by indenture, to the ordinary or his officers.]; 

It was customary at this period for the archbishop to 
have a closer connection with his province than he claims 
to have in modern days. Before Parker began his visita- 
tion in 1560, he inhibited all his suffragans from visiting 
that year as ordinary, at the same time commissioning 
them to visit vice & auctoritate Rcverendissimi Palris 
Arcliiepiscopi Cantuariensis, that the same articles might be 
delivered simultaneously in every diocese of his province. 
That Grindal adopted at York the procedure with which 
he was familiar in London, we have every reason to be- 
lieve. In that case he would require bishop Barnes to 
visit the diocese of Carlisle under his commission and to 
enforce his injunctions. 

*The well-known Liter quorundam Canonum discipline of 1571, drawn up by 
Parker, and subscribed by the bishops of the southern province. It is found in 
Sparrow's Collection p. 223. 

fStrype's Grindal p. 166, folio edition 1710. 

J Remains of Abp. Grindal p. 325, Parker Society. It may be noted that the 
Parker Society gives Grindal's injunctions in extenso; Strype and Cardwell only 
in fragments and omitting the required article. 



In the absence of direct documentary proof, what cir- 
cumstantial evidence have we that the destructive hand 
of Grindal may be traced in the religious life and cere- 
monial of this diocese ? If the York injunctions were put 
in force with the accustomed energy of their author, so 
drastic and so protestant were they that in a diocese like 
Carlisle, " ignorant and lawless, and replenished with 
papists," we may well expect some notices of their ap- 
plication and results. Without apology I shall subpoena 
the Rev. H. Whitehead again, and seek my "findings" in 
the direction he indicates : — 

Bishop Barnes had been chancellor of York and retained- his chan- 
cellorship for a year after his appointment in 1570 to the See of 
Carlisle : in which year Grindal who had been bishop of London, be- 
came archbishop of York, and at once issued a number of injunctions 
to his own diocese. One of Grindal's injunctions was an order in 
1571 to substitute " decent communion cups," for " massing chalices " 
(Cripp's Old English Plate, 3rd edition, p. 159). We know that Barnes 
sent a similar injunction in 1571 to the churchwardens of Crosthwaite 
(Whellan, p. 334) : and from the number of communion cups of that 
date remaining in this diocese, it may be inferred that he issued in- 
junctions of a like kind throughout the diocese (Church Plate in Car- 
lisle diocese, p. 194). 

But the acts of bishop Barnes were not confined to this 
department alone : his general method of procedure bears 
a close resemblance to that of Grindal, not only in its hos- 
tility to " massing chalices " but to " all other relics and 
monuments of superstition and idolatry," which were to 
" be utterly defaced, broken, and destroyed. "t A cur- 
sory comparison of cause and effect will satisfy the most 

* Barnes had a weekness for holding what he had got. Grindal, who did not 
relish his pluralism, writes to archbishop Parker in 1575 and implores him to help 
him to stop it. This is what he says: — 

" The bishop of Carlisle hath in cowmendam a benefice of my patronage, named 
Stokesley, till the first of August next : if he makes suit to have his commendam 
renewed, 1 pray your grace stay for Stokesley. It is a market town, and hath 
been very evil served ever sith he had it. I would place a preacher to be resident 
upon it" (Grindal, p. 354, Parker Society). 

f Remains of Abp. Grindal, p. 136. 



incredulous that the havoc* in Crosthwaite vestry can 
only be explained by the enforcement of the York injunc- 
tions : Barnes bent the bow but Grindal provided the 
bolt. Besides, bishop Barnes " held the first recorded 
visitation of the cathedral,! under the statutes of Henry 
VIII " where he admonished those of the petty canons who 
were suspected of papistical proclivities ; " he also enjoins 
a newly-appointed theologies prelector to preach ad clerum 
every year, as well as at other times " : this is exactly what 
Grindal was doing at the same time in York. The effect 
of the various articles of Grindal's injunctions to the clergy, 
to the laity, and to the cathedral, may be traced in some 
portion of this diocese : so much so, indeed, that one is 
forced to the conclusion that bishop Barnes was visiting 
under his commission and carrying out his mandates. 
The archbishop was the moving spirit of the ecclesiastical 
commission sent by the Queen to put down papism in the 
north : and it is not likely that the diocese of Carlisle should 
be overlooked so soon after the Dacre raid of 1569. 

I confess that I am not satisfied with my account of 
the origin of transcripts; the most I can expect for it is 
that it may suggest further inquiry. It would be better 
if we could lay our finger on a synodal, order of convoca- 
tion, or royal decree of much earlier date than 1597, which 
some may consider necessary to explain the action of the 
two most famous of Elizabethan primates in requiring 
them. On the other hand, if transcripts came into exis- 
tence after the Topseian fashion, not by the creation of 
some supreme authority, but by natural growth from their 
inevitable surroundings, what I have stated may be taken 
as a sufficient explanation. At all events, we have got 

* Whellan's History of Cumberland, pp. 334-5. 

•f S.P.C.K. History of the Diocese of Carlisle, p. 12G. Compare Grindal's in- 
junctions " unto the Ucane and Chapter of the cathedrall churche of Yorke " 
(Remains of Abp. Grindal, pp. 146-153). 



behind the Dalston document in showing that the York 
injunctions of 1571, which required transcripts, were opera- 
tive in the diocese of Carlisle — a fact which is sufficient to 
explain the existence of the institution in after years. The 
Dalston transcript is one of singular interest, and if it 
happens to be a solitary survival of transcripts made before 
1597 in the ancient diocese of Carlisle, the parish of 
Dalston is to be congratulated on having supplied it. 


Art. XXI. The Parish Registers of Orton, Westmorland. 

By J. Holme Nicholson, M.A. 
Read at Orton, July 3rd, 1890. 

IT would, I fear, be indulging in a too sanguine hope to 
look forward to a day when the registers of every parish 
will be printed. Here and there, notably in one parish 
within the range of this Society's investigations, viz : 
Ulverston, there has been sufficient public spirit to under- 
take such a work. I suppose when " time's effacing 
finger" has completed the work of destruction, there will 
be a general feeling of regret that the opportunity has 
been lost of preserving these interesting records of our 
forefathers, not a few of which afford glimpses of local 
customs, modes of life, and noteworthy events. Failing a 
realization of such a desirable work, the next best thing I 
think is to make a systematic investigation of the registers 
in each parish, draw up an analysis of their contents, and 
record the result in the Transactions of our local Anti- 
quarian Societies. A considerable number of parishes in 
Cumberland and Westmorland have been thus dealt with 
by our Society, and I hope the work will be prosecuted 
until, in time, we have an authentic account of all the 
registers in the two counties. 

Far removed from the busy world, in a wild secluded 
district, with a sparse population scattered amid the bleak 
Westmorland fells, or in small hamlets along the valley 
of the Lune, the inhabitants of the large parish of Orton 
were little affected by stirring public events, and it oc- 
casions no surprise therefore to find that there are no 
allusions to these in the registers. We should have been 
glad however of even the slightest reference to such events 
as the passing through the parish of Charles II and his 



army of Scots, who, after refreshing themselves at the 
" Black Dub " on the Crosby Ravensworth fells, moved 
southward towards the fatal field of Worcester, or to the 
incident recorded in a letter from Richard Braithwaite to 
Col. James Grahme of Levens, in the following terms : — 

Lord Lonsdale's father would not have made so great a figure in life 
if I had not largely contributed to it. At the time of the Revolution, 
Sir John Lowther wrote a tragical letter to me late one night, saying 
that the disbanded Irish were coming upon us, and desiring me to meet 
him at Orton the next morning. I marched to that place with about 
500 horse and foot, and so to Kendal, while Sir John was at Kirkby 
Lonsdale. So again at the regulation of the coin [in 1696J, the mob 
at Kendal threatened to burn Lowther, which put him in great fright- 
I then joined him at Rownthwaite [near Tebay] , with above 200 horse 
to supress the mob, he having not above forty. 

Or again to that " Sunday Hunting " on the 15th of 
December, 1745, when the advanced guard of Prince 
Charlie's Highlanders, consisting of above 100 hussars 
under the Duke of Perth, attempting to make their way 
into Scotland by the eastern bank of the Eden, were met 
on Langwathby moor by the Penrith men, who mobbed 
them out of Cumberland and into Westmorland, when 
they made their escape over Orton Scar, and first drew 
rein and refreshed themselves at Orton, from whence 
they rejoined the main body of the army at Kendal.* 

The Orton registers indeed contain nothing but a bare 
record of christenings, weddings, and burials, in good 
preservation, methodically kept, and quite lacking in 
material for an entertaining paper. I must therefore con- 
tent myself with a mere description of the books and 
their contents. Dr. Burn, the historian of the county and 
vicar of this parish from 1736 to 1785, makes no mention 
of the registers, indeed he curiously enough seems to have 

* These Transactions vol. x, p. 19G, n. 



ignored such records all through his history of Westmor- 
land. The only reference to them in print, as far as I 
know, is that made hy Bishop Nicolson in his visitation 
in 1703. Under date of July 12th, he says: — 

The register book begins the 28th of Mar. 1654 which is said to be 
A 6 t0 Car. 2, and so it goes on, 1655, A 7 t0 &c, Mr. Fothergill, a true 
cavalier, being then vicar. 

The hishop seems only to have been shown the volume 
then in use, and to have been ignorant that there was a 
still earlier one in existence. The earliest volume is a 
long narrow book measuring 15! in. x 5^ in. and about 
f in. in thickness ; it is in full brown calf binding, which, 
judging by the style, I should take to be of the time 
when Dr. Burn was vicar. Probably when the bishop 
was in Orton it was a loose collection of paper and parch- 
ment leaves. In its present form it consists of both paper 
and parchment leaves much intermixed. The first page 
of the book contains the following entry ; — 

The names of the sworne men of Orto' Anno d'ni 1596. — 
George Sharpp 
Thomas Birkbecke 
Edward Thorneburrowe 
Arthure Twhaite (sic) 
John Parke 
Edmound Atkinson 
Thomas Potter 
Willia' Gawthropp 
Robert Crosbie 
Christofer Branthwait 
Jeffraye Whorton 
John Thorneburrowe 
Edward Foster 
Myles Powlaie 

Imprimis that thes be diligent and careful to see and provide that 

the people be . . . and behave the'selves honestlie feare 

of God accordinge to the Holie Word of God and the good and whole- 


some lawes of this land. Secondlie to se that the churchwardens be 
careful and diligent in executinge their office ioyne with thes in sup- 
pressinge of sinne and such as behave the'selves inordinatlie to 
reprove and rebuke those wh be founde offendors and if they will not 
amend to p e sent the' to be punished. Thivdlic to se that the church 
and churchy d be decentlie repaired and mainteyned. Also we ar 
agreed y l everie p'sonnis beinge found faultie by the churchwardens 
and p'sented to the sworn me' shall paie xij d to the poore m'as box. 
And that whosoever doth not come p'sent the'selves lawfull warning 
beinge given eyther of the xij or churchwardens to the place appoin- 
ted shall loose xi [j] to the poore m'as box without a sufficient cause 
to the co'traire whereof thes ar to certifie the rest assembled at. . . . 

appointed of their meetinge. Lastlie that the churchwarde's 

and take the sam forfat . . . p'sent the offendors. 

The margin at the bottom of the leaf has perished and 
the words which should fill the blanks are therefore 
missing. The clause following the third admonition is a 
little obscure. I take it to mean that any person being 
deemed by the churchwardens to be guilty of disorderly 
or immoral conduct should be presented to the court of 
the 12 sworn men [the list given comprises 14 names, 
perhaps the two churchwardens have been included] who 
should, if the accused is unable to clear himself, there- 
upon inflict a fine of I2d. payable to the poor's box, and 
that if he fails to attend and answer to the complaint, 
being duly summoned by either the 12 or the church- 
wardens, or fails to send sufficient excuse for absence, the 
same fine should be imposed. Page 2 commences with 
the following heading : — 

A Register booke of all christeninges, weddinges, and burialles from the 
yeare of our Lord God 1596, 

And the earliest entries are : 

Christeninges Julii Jacobs ffili John po w ley 25 

Augustii Edward fili John Haisthwithe) 

Agnesa ffili {tic) Ric. Atkinson j pnmo die ' 



There were no manorial lords or territorial magnates 
resident in the parish at this or any other time. The 
chief personages were the substantial yeomen living upon 
and cultivating their own freehold or customary estates. 
Amongst these were the families of Adamson, Atkinson, 
Birkbeck, Bland, Branthwaite, Byndloss, Crosby, Denison, 
Fawcett, Hastwith or Haisthwith, Hayton, Holme, Over- 
end, Park, Potter, Powley or Pulley, Sharp, Thornborrow, 
Wharton, Whitehead, Wilson, and Winster. Some of 
these may have represented the parent stems, or perhaps 
only have been offshoots, of well known county families, 
such as the Birkbecks in relation to the Birkbecks of 
Hornby in the parish of Brougham, the Blands to the 
Blands of Kippax Park in Yorkshire, the Byndlosses to 
the Kendal merchant, Sir Christopher Byndloss, progeni- 
tor of the race who settled at Borwick Hall, Thornborrow, 
sometimes spelt Thornburgh and Thornbrowe, to the 
Thornburghs of Selside, Whartons to the Whartons of 
Wharton, and Kirkby Thore. From the prominent man- 
ner in which some of the entries relating to the Birkbecks 
are made in the earliest volume, these being written in 
Old English characters, I infer that they were regarded 
as the most influential people. They resided in the old 
house in Orton which we shall visit to-day, now called 
Petty Hall, and at Coatflat Hall, about one mile south of 
Orton. That they enjoyed some social position may be 
assumed from the fact that amongst those who were 
" disclaimed " at the assize held at Appleby in 1666 for 
not obeying the summons of Dugdale, when he made the 
last Herald's visitation of the county were — 

Thorn. Birkbeck of Coatflat, and T. B. of Orton. 

The family of Branthwaite also enjoys the distinction of an 
entry of christening written in larger characters than 
ordinary : — 



1597 Maii Richarde filius Edmundi Branthwait ... 8. 

and in one or two later instances. The family resided at 
Carlingill near Borrow Bridge, an estate which I believe 
is still in the possession of their lineal descendants in the 
male line. The vicar from 1595 to 1643, and therefore 
for the whole period over which the first volume extends, 
was the Rev. John Corney, M.A. In recording the chris- 
tenings of his children he encloses the entries within 
lines : — 

1606 Nov. Sara filia Joh'is Corney Vicarii de Orton . . . ixth 

1609 Julii Ffranncis the daughter of Mr John Corney vicar of Orton 


1610 Julii Grace the daughter of Mr. John Corney, vicar of Orton 


The christenings go on continuously until November 1643, 
and then two leaves of parchment are inserted containing 
in another handwriting the christenings for the years 
1644, 45, 46. The last of these entries is 

1646 Februarii Robertus Jacobi Adamson filius, de Roundthwaite, 

This may perhaps be the Robert Adamson who founded 
the school at Tebay in 1672. Opposite the entries in 
April 1597 the following marginal note occurs " Hec (sic) 
in curia' data sunt," and again in May 1600 " Hec in 
curia' exhibit." Similar entries occur repeatedly in this 
volume down to May 1643, and also in Vol. 2 as late as 
the middle of the last century. The books seem to have 
been produced annually, generally in March or April, but 
occasionally in other months. 

I am not aware that any order was ever made that 
parish registers should be produced in any Court, but it 
was ordained by the archbishop and clergy of Canterbury, 
25th October, 1597, that transcripts of the parish registers, 



to be examined and their correctness certified at the bottom 
of each page by the clergyman and churchwardens, 
should be forwarded annually within one month of Easter 
by the respective churchwardens to the registrar of the 
diocese, that they might be faithfully preserved in the 
episcopal archives. This constitution was approved by 
the Queen under the great seal of England, and ordered 
to be observed in both provinces of Canterbury and York. 
As this order imposed unprofitable labour on uninterested 
parties it is not surprising that it was frequently disre- 
garded. If the marginal notes refer to this order it was 
better obeyed here than in many places. 

Following the christenings comes the heading 

Weddings 1596, Anno Regni Reginae Elizabeths xxxviij th 

The number from the 15th of June, 1596, to the 15th of 
November, 1598, is 14. Amongst the familar names the 
following occur : — 

1599 June Christopher Thornbrow and Sycill Bland xxiiij th 
„ August Robert Thornbrowe and Isabell Whitehead xxvij th 

1600 Nov. James Birkbeck and Isabell Bland xviij th 

1601 July Phillippe Thornbrowe and Genet Watters V th 
,, ,, Leonard Birkbeck and Genet Thornbrowe xvj lh 

1602 June Robert Birkbeck and Isabell Houlme „... xxiiij th 

1603 July Michaell Branthwaite and Elsabeth Winster xxiiij th 

1604 July Richard Barlowe and Isabell Birkbeck j 3t 

161 1 Nov. William Thornbrowe and Jane Skaiffe vij th 

1614 Jan. Cuthbert Thornbrowe and Margret Powson xxiiij th 

,, Feb. Robert Lademan and Mabell Thornbrowe ij nd 
„ April Richard Tubman and Elizabeth Willson xviij th 
,, June William Thornborowe and Agnas Hewitson xxiij d 
,, Nov. Leonard Thornborrowe and Elizabeth White- 
head xxiij d 

Richard Barlow and Isabel Birbeck mentioned above were 
the parents of Thomas Barlow who was born at Langdale 
(not Lang-hill as stated by Mr. Atkinson in his " Worthies 



of Westmorland") in this parish, and who in the course of 
his career attained to the following honours — Fellow and 
Provost of Queen's College, Oxford ; Keeper of the Bod- 
leian Library ; Commissioner for restoring the members 
ejected from the University in 1648 ; Doctor of Divinity, 
and Lady Margaret Professor ; Archdeacon of Oxford ; 
and finally Bishop of Lincoln. Though unboubtedly a 
man of great learning, I dont think Orton has much 
reason to be proud of him if all that is said of him is true. 
Like the vicar of Bray, let who will be king, he did not 
intend to give up the good things he had got. The fol- 
lowing entries relate to the christening of the Bishop and 
his brother: — 

1607 April Tho. the son of Ric. Barlow xxvj th 

1609 July Robt. the son of Ric. Barlow .... xxv th 

The mention of the name of Scaife in the foregoing list 
recalls an ancient family scattered in this and the adjacent 
parishes of Ravenstonedale and Kirkby Stephen, two of 
whom served in Parliament as burgesses for Appleby, in 
the reigns of Edw. II and Edw. III. Their later descen- 
dants, among whom was Major Scaife an active officer 
under Oliver Cromwell, who obtained a considerable share 
of sequestered estates, resided for several generations at 
Winton Hall, near Kirkby Stephen. No weddings are 
recorded between 28th August, 1616, when the parchment 
leaves end, and the 2~jth February, 1619, when the paper 
leaves begin, the entries are then continued regularly up 
to the 15th October, 1628, when they cease until May, 
1635. A curious name occurs on the 28th July, 1636, 

" Willm Prestcosine and Mabell Thompson." 

The weddings and burials for the year 1644, 1645, and 
1646, are contained on interpolated leaves of parchment 
like the christenings for the same years. John Corney 
the vicar who had held the living for 48 years, had died in 



1643. The national dissensions, Dr. Burn informs us, 
had made themselves felt in this secluded parish, and for 
some time the parishioners could not agree on a successor. 
The entries for these three years are in a good clerical 
handwriting differing in character from those which pre- 
cede and those which follow them. The sheet which 
contains the burials is signed, but in a later handwriting: 

Thomas Robinson, Parish Clerk, 1742. 

After the weddings come the entries of burials ; the first 
of these is 

1596 Julii Henry Wharton, xxvij 

From September, 1597, to the end of 1598, is the period 
when the counties of Cumberland and Westmorland were 
ravaged by the plague. We have evidence of the visita- 
tion in Orton. I give in the following table, the number 
of burials between July 1596, and November, 1598 : — 

1596-7, July 1 1597-8, March 2 1598, April 2 

August .... 3 April 4 May 4 

September 1 May 14 June 1 

October 1 June 12 July o 

November 4 July 3 August o 

December 4 August 4 Sept 3 

January 3 September 9 October o 

February 4 October 5 November 2 

Mar. to 25 th 3 November 6 

December 3 

January 2 

February 1 

March to 25 th 1 

The average monthly burials in the ten months pre- 
ceeding May, 1589, was three, in the seven months May 

* The paper leaves end here, and there are no burial entries until March, 1^02, 
when they are resumed on parchment. 



to November 1598 it was 7-57. The following entries 
have a special mark set against their names, the first an 
index hand, and the others the letters ec : — 

ISf 1596 Dec, Uxor Richardi Blande 

,, ,, Roberte Hodgson 

1597 May Henry son of George Birkbeck 

,, ,, Leonard Birkbeck 

,, June Margret filia Steven Thompson 

, ,, Janet daughter of George Birkbeck 

,, ,, Isabell daughter of George Birkbeck 

,, July Bryan Birkbeck 

,, Sept. Uxor Richardi Holme 

,, ,, Robbi Atkinson 

,, Oct. Rowland Thornbrowe 

,, Nov. Uxor Wil'mus Sympson 

,, Jan. Margret filia 01iv r Whitehead 

... xx 
... vij 
,.. xij 
.. xiij 

" .' ] 
.. xxix 

.. xxix 

.. xxvj 


.. vij 

These marked names may indicate deaths from the plague 
and the letters ec burials in the church, in ecclcsiam. Con- 
sidering the great mortality in the months of May and 
June, 1598, there must have been more deaths from that 
cause which have not been specially marked. No burials 
are recorded after the year 1598 until March, 1602, from 
that time they are continued regularly until September, 
1617, when a blank occurs, they are resumed again in 
January 1623-4 an ^ continued until 1646. In the year 1623 
the plague broke out again with great severity, in many 
places in Cumberland and Westmorland ; the burials are 
not recorded for the 5^ years preceeding January, 1623 ; 
in the 14 months which follow, the numbers were : — 

1623-4 m January, eight ; February, eight ; March, 
four. 1624-5 March, two; April, five; May, one ; June, 
nil. ; July, five ; August, two ; September, two ; October, 
three ; November, five ; December, five ; January, five ; 
February, one. — Total, Sixty-one. Comparing these 
numbers with those of the years preceding and fol- 
lowing this period, for instance in 1612-24, in 1616-20, 



in 1625-16, in 1635-19, it will be seen that the mortality 
was nearly three times the average rate. In Dr. Barnes* 
article on the " Visitation of the Plague in Cumberland 
and Westmorland," (Trans. C. & \V. Antiq. Soc. Vol. XI 
part 1.) it is stated that the mortality in the adjoining 
parish of Ravenstonedale was especially high in the 
months of June, July, and August, 1730, in Orton it 
scarcely exceeded the average, 1727, twenty-eight ; 1728, 
twenty-eight: 1729, nineteen ; 1730, twenty-three ; 1731, 
thirty; 1732, twenty-eight. Amongst the burials in this 
volume, the following occur emphasized in one form or 
other : — 

1603 Feb. Thomas Birkbeck, eldest of Orton xvij 

1607 July M'ris Grace Corney the wyfe of Mr. John 

Corney Vicar of Orton xxij 

1624 Nov. Mr. George Birkbeck iij 

1626 April Philippe Winster xxv 

1633 April Mr. Edmcnd Branthwaite xvij 

1635 January Georg Whitehead de Orton (Old Eng). :: iiij 

1G41 July Edward Birkbeck the younger son of Edwd. 
Birkbeck, of Orton Townehead (framed 
in lines) xx 

1643 July Mr. John Corney (Old Eng.) late vicar of 

Orton ... . xv 

1646 May Bryanus Birkbeck de Orton (Old Eng.) .... xi 

* I had omitted when examining- the registers to search for the entry of 
christening of a native of the parish, George Whitehead, of whom Chancellor 
Ferguson (" Early Cumberland and Westmorland Friends"), says that " he was 
the most famous of all the early missionaries of Quakerism, and, after George 
Fox, the chief founder of that society, whilst from the great age he attained, and 
the lead he took in the society's business he might be deemed, to a great extent, 
its father." At my request the vicar kindly looked through the registers from 1630 
to 1G44 but failed to find his christening recorded. It is stated that he was born 
about 1635, and died in 1722-3, and was buried in Bunhill Fields, London. The 
entry of burial given above, which is made in Old English letters, I assume would 
be a member of his family, perhaps his father or grandfather. I may perhaps 
here be allowed to refer to another parishioner, who was noted as an almost 
equally zealous preacher amongst the Methodists, Stephen Brunskill. The banns 
of marriage between him and Sarah Hewetson, of the parish of Ravenstonedale, 
were published on the 5th, 12th and 19th September, 1773, the marriage probably 
took place at Ravenstonedale. His burial took place at Orton, July, 1S36, his 
age being Sj years. 



The remaining portion of the volume consists of 11 1 pages 
of the churchwardens' accounts ; they are kept with great 
regularity and method. I give the first as a type of the 
rest : — 

The Accompts of the churchwardens given att Easter, 1645. 
Received by Edward Bland. 


mis Ust money 




polr money 




for burialls 




head silver 



Sum 'a totals 
Disbursed by him : — 





mis for bread and wine 










to the glazier.... 





for work att ye porch 




to Willm. Wharton 





to Willm. Birkbeck for ye clock 





for three days to Appleby 





for casting the porch work 





to an Irish preacher 





for a copy for the Register book 





for putting of itt into the Court 





for going one day to Penrith 





to the Mosse 





to the Ropemaker 





for a qehcon 







Sum'a totals 02 13 10 

" Polr " in some places " Poulr " I take to mean hire of 
pall ; " Ust money " use of money, i.e. interest paid on poor 
stock lent out, " Head silver " church rates or dues of 
some kind, " Tax money " in another place probably means 
the same thing, the last item in the disbursements is I 
think a " cushion " to write which as locally pronounced 



has been too difficult a tax on the writer's orthographical 
skill. The preceding account is out of its place, for the 
next dates back to 1608. I give a few items from suc- 
ceeding accounts : — 

Received of Thomas Hasthvvithe for his late cominge to 

Eveninge prayer .... xijd. 

Disbursed for Souldiers and prisoners ixs. ixd. 

For a foxe head xijd. 

For writing upp the accompts .... vid. 

For oile for the bells .... iiijd. 

To Georg Wilson for 5 ravens heads vd. 

To John Benison for a hedgehogg ijd. 

For going to Kendall iiijd. 

To Thomas Biikbeck for a wilde cat ijd. 

To Thomas Birkbeck for keeping the clock vijs. 

To Jas. ffayrey for 4 pyots ijd. 

To the clerk for registering vid. 

For a brock head is. 

For killing of a bustard ijd. 

1659 Itm of Anto Thornbr for his grandfather's 

burial .... iijs. ivd. 

Itm of Rob Thornbr for his uncle John's 

burial iijs. ivd. 

Itm for Ringers upon ye Coronation day xijd. 

Itm at Court at Appleby and his own travell is. ivd. 
1662 Itm with Webster when ye king's Armes 

should have been feht [fecht] xd. 

Payments for the relief of soldiers and prisoners, and for 
destroying vermin are frequent. At the end of the first 
volume there is a statement of poor stock, &c. transferred 
from the old to the new churchwardens in 161S-19. The 
names of the churchwardens are appended, but all in the 
same hand writing, in some cases however they have at- 
tached their marks. 

The second volume is bound in full calf, size 13 in. x 9 
in. ; the fly leaf bears the following inscription : — ■ 



A True and p'fect Register Booke of all the Christenings, Burialls, 
and Weddings Att o' Parish Church att Orton alias Overton, be- 
ginning at the Twenty-eighth day of March, in the yeare of o r Lord 
God one Thousand six hundred and ffifty ffower, 1654. 

Thoma' Birkbeck 
(?) Churchwarden ibid. 
The next page is headed 

Christenings Anno Regni Caroli se'di nunc Angliae, &c, sexto Ano' 
dom'i 1654. 

This is the volume which was shown to bishop Nicolson 
and which elicited the remark on the vicar's loyalty. 
The christenings are carried on uninteruptedly until the 
3rd August 1743, and appear to be in the same hand- 
writing up to 1679, or perhaps later. As George Fother- 
gill the vicar, was ejected in 1662, I think the entries must 
have been made by some other person, perhaps the parish 
clerk who might have been also the schoolmaster. The 
burials are from March 1654 to Feb. 1744. The letters cc 
appear in the margin against some of the names in 1654, 
and are repeated frequently afterwards. This volume 
contains the record of the burial of two vicars of the parish, 
the first of whom succeeded George Fothergiil and enjoyed 
the living for 41 years, and the latter for 33 years. 

1703 January Mr. Roger Kenyon, Vicar of Orton the 14th 

1736 July Mr. Thomas Nelson, late Vicar of Orton 18th 

Mr. Kenyon's death took place in 1704, as the year was 
then reckoned from March to March. Bishop Nicolson 
at his visitation on the 12th July 1703, speaks of him 
thus : — 

The present vicar (Mr. Kennyon), is 85 years of age, and has been 
marry'd to his present wife, now liveing, 60 years. 

The date inscribed on his tombstone in the vestry states 

that he 


Departed this life February the nth day, 1703. 

which is at variance with the register. Between July and 
March 1742-3, " small pox " is noted against eight of the 
hurials, and, in some cases, the ages are this year inserted 
for the first time ; they mostly relate to very old people, 94, 
90, 88, 84, &c. The weddings from 1654 to 1744 follow, 
the numbers average from 12 to 15 a year. Dr. Burn's 
entries commence in 1736, and are in a clear bold hand- 
writing. Volume 3 measures 13 in. x 9 in. and is about 
two inches in thickness. It begins with christenings 12th 
April, 1743, continued to 7th December, 1801. The 
names of both parents are now given, and beginning with 
1786, the mother's name before marriage as well. A Nota 
bene states that the christenings for the year 1802, &c. are 
entered in the latter end of the register near the entry of 
burials. The weddings come next beginning May 1st, 1743, 
and the residences of both parties are given. With 1754 
the entries are fuller, publication of banns being men- 
tioned and the parties sign the register. This plan is 
continued until 1812 ; then follows a record of publication 
of banns from 1814 to the beginning of 1826. After this the 
book has been turned upside down and 21 pp. are filled 
with the christenings from January 1802, to December, 1812. 
Then the book is again reversed and the burials from 26th 
April, 1743, to 28th December, 1812, are entered. These 
end the 3rd vol. and what may be called the old registers. 
The act 52 Geo. Ill c. 146 (known as Rose's Act) 
enacts that new books of registers with new forms should 
be used by all parishes after the 31st December, 1812, 
that the baptisms, marriages, and burials should be entered 
in separate books, and that copies were to be furnished to 
the Bishop's registrar of the diocese, who was likewise to 
be furnished with lists of extant register books, 
f Whilst fully acknowledging the advantages which the 
more precise and methodical registration of the modern 



system has given us, the antiquary may perhaps be par- 
doned a feeling of regret that it allows no scope for the 
quaint details and comments on things in general, which 
are to be found, not in these I am sorry to say, but in 
many of our old parish registers. 

I must not close my paper without expressing my best 
thanks to the vicar, the Rev. Edward Holme, for his 
courtesy in affording me full opportunity for making my 


Art. XXII. Notes on the Roman Itinera in North West- 
morland, compared with modern measurements. By the 
Rev. Canon Mathews. 

Read at Appleby, July yd, 1S90. 

I MUST premise that I have no novel suggestions to 
offer on this subject, but as we shall have our attention 
drawn tomorrow to the Roman roads, it may be of some 
interest to point out what correspondence is to be found 
between the Itinera, or way books, of those roads and 
modern measurements. Often there seem to be difficul- 
ties in the way of our identifying the Roman measurements 
with modern maps ; which arise partly from the Roman 
mile or mille passuum consisting of 1000 paces of 5 feet, or 
about 100 yards short of our statute mile, and partly 
from the fact that their miles were actually stepped, while 
our maps present a plane surface, on which the distance 
from point to point sometimes differs a good deal from 
the actual pacing over uneven ground. 

Happening to possess an old coaching waybook* in 
which the distances along all the principal roads are given 
according to actual measurement, and not map measure- 
ment, I have been struck with the correspondence I have 
found in parts of the country with which I am acquainted, 
between the distances of the Itinera and those of the 
coach roads which follow them. And if we bear in mind 
(1) the slight difference in the length of Roman and 
English miles ; (2) that the coach roads often slightly 
deviate from the Roman ways, when following them 
generally; (3) that the Romans did not set down fractions 
of miles, but allowed for them under the saving clause 
plus minus, — more or less ; we shall not be surprised when 

* Patterson's Roads, London, 1S26. 




we find a close coincidence — one difference balancing the 
other. This we do find if we apply the test to our North 
Westmorland Itinera, — the routes variously given as II 
and V along the great road which leads from York to 

Taking Iter V first, for a reason which will appear after, 
we find the distance thus given, compared with the 
coaching miles. 




York to 










Lav at v a 






B rough 

J 3 









The slight excess generally of the Roman mileage being 
due to the shorter length of the Roman mile. The one 
instance to the contrary being probably due to deviation of 
the coach road from the old via. 

If we now turn to the other Iter 11, we have 

Eboracum to 

York to 




16 miles 




23 ,, 




20 ,, 




1 3 » 



Kirkby Thore 

13 >, 



Plumpton Wall 

*3 .. 




13! ., 

The differences here are curious, and I think instructive. 
Clearly a V has dropped out by a scribe's error from the 
day's march to Lavatrce, if given as xiii; it must be xviii 
as in the other Iter. And the march from that station to 
Verterce, variously given as xiii and xiv, it may have been 
to make up for dropped fractions ; and so the Itinera, up 
to Brough are harmonised. But the differences to Carlisle 



are marked, not in the total mileage, which is substantially 
the same and agrees closely with the actual measurement 
but the 40 miles are divided into 3 marches of about 13 
miles in the one, with stations at Brovonacce and Voreda, 
instead of two marches with one station at Brocavum, as 
in the other. What does this point to ? 

1 should like to suggest, towards the elucidation of this, 
that (1) neither route indicates the well marked camp at 
Redlands ; and (2) that we find in all the marches through 
Westmorland half-way forts, not indicated on the Itinera, 
which roughly divide each day's march, partly to keep 
open the communications — partly to afford a secure mid- 
day halt. Thus we have the fort at Maiden castle, on 
the pass of Stainmoor, six miles from Bowes and seven 
from Brough, and a well marked fort at Coupland beck, 
six miles from Brough, and seven from Kirkby Thore. 
and as Redlands is ioi miles from Brough and nine from 
Brougham, I am inclined to think it was a half-way fort 
on that day's march, when Carlisle was to be reached in 
two days from Brough with a night's rest at Brougham, 
instead of three. 

We may argue that when the road was first made from 
York to the Wall, the troops were ordinarily required to 
make 20 miles a day ; which was the distance, we know, 
commonly made in a Roman Legionary march. The Iter 
V averages 20 miles a day, with the exception of the 
route between Bowes and Brough, and when we consider 
what sort of a march it must have been in those day's to 
cross Stanemoor, they may well have been excused if they 
only made 13 miles, with the burdens that a Roman 
Legionary had to carry, or if they were inclined to call it 
14, as in Iter II, instead of 13. But when the country 
was subdued and opened up, and cross roads made, one 
joining from Keswick at Plumpton, and the Maiden W r ay 
crossing at Kirkby Thore, then the important permanent 
stations of Voreda and Bvovonaca were made, which 



divided the route into three instead of two, Redlands 
remaining a castra cestiva, or camp solely for soldiers on 
campaign, and Brougham becoming a half-way fort seven 
miles from Kirkby Thore, and six from Plumpton Wall, 
like Maiden castle or Coupland beck forts. 

On this reading of the curious circumstances that two 
varying Itinera have been preserved of exactly the same 
main road we should take Iter V as possibly the older 
way bill,* or one preserved for troops in actual campaign 
when it was an object to push on to the great wall, and 
save a day's march, while Iter II was the route for ordi- 
nary marching with impedimenta. At least by this hypo- 
thesis we preserve both intact, without doing violence to 
either, and make the vexed questions as to Brocavum 
and Brovonacce intelligible, by fixing each where actual 
measurements place them, at Brougham and Kirkby 
Thore respectively. 

If however we try to apply the same solvent to the Xth 
Iter, we find ourselves, alas ! no nearer than we were. 
All we can say with any certainty, is that it ran some- 
where through North Westmorland from Manchester : 
but the road measurements (which are the basis of 
my paper) only give the following very meagre results : — 
The mileage from Mancunium to Coccium agrees with 
the position of Blackrode on the Lancaster road, where 
some authorities have placed Coccium : and roughly the 
mileage to Galacum and Alone corresponds with road 
measurements to Overborough and Low Borrowbridge. 
No mileage makes any station agree with the position of 
Lancaster, Kendal, or Ambleside, and no known station 
on the Maiden way coincides with the mileages of Galava 
or Glanovcnta. (Either a V has dropped out the mileage 
from A lone to Galava, or it was an exceptionally hilly road, 
for only xii miles to be required of Roman soldiers on march 

* By the Ilnd Iter, l&ubrigantum, the Aldborough of the native Brigantes had 
become Roman Jsurium, 



in a regular route.) Roughly again the total mileage to 
Glanoventa agrees with the position of either Whitley 
Castle, or Old Carlisle: which was the true termination, 
as our president rightly says, will probably never be known 
until it is revealed by the spade. 


Art. XXIII. The Appleby Chained Books. By Charles 

Robert Rivington. 
Read at Appleby, July 3rd, 1890. 

T AST Easter, whilst inspecting the registers at St. 
■" Laurence, Appleby, I came upon two volumes of 
chained books of some antiquity, which upon closer in- 
spection appeared to be worthy, and in want of some 
attention. The volumes had evidently been cast on one 
side many years since, and lost sight of, as well as the 
benevolent intention of the donor. In several parishes 
throughout the the country chained books are still pre- 
served. At Wimborne several are to be seen in the 
library of the minster, but the largest collection now in 
existence is probably at Hereford. 

The eminent printer Mr. William Blades, whose recent 
death is much to be deplored, was at the time of his fatal 
illness compiling an account of all the chained books now 
preserved, which will shortly be published. The first 
translation into English of the entire Bible appeared in 
1535, and was published by Miles Coverdale ; it was under- 
taken at the instance of Cromwell but was very imperfect, 
Tyndal had previously published his translation of the 
New Testament and the Pentateuch, and some of the 
prophetical books, but Coverdale's version appears to have 
been the first translation of the entire book. In 1539 
appeared Cranmer's Bible, which was the first Bible 
printed by royal authority in England, and in the following 
year a royal proclamation was issued ordering a copy to 
be placed in every parish church throughout England. 
The book was a large and costly one and was usually 
chained to a lectern. Half a century after this royal pro- 
clamation had been issued, Richard Moore the orphan son 
of Anthony Moore, a tailor of Appleby, went to London and 



was apprenticed to Matthew Lownes a well known printer, 
and a member of the Stationers Company for nine years 
and a quarter from Michaelmas, 1598. Moore served his 
time with his master and on the 2nd November, 1607, was 
admitted to the freedom of the Company. He at once com- 
menced business as a stationer or bookseller, and on the 
28th March, 1608, he entered at Stationers hall " A most 
sightly and merry conceited comedie called who-would-a- 
thought-it or Lawetrykes." On the 29th June, 1616, 
Moore was admitted to the livery or cloathing of his com- 
pany, and paid a fine of £20. In 163 1 he was chosen 
renter warden, and again in the following year, but on 
that occasion he " made his humble request unto the table 
to be dispensed withall for serving the second yeare renter 
and the table admitted him to fyne, and they imposed 
xxiiij 11 and so freed him." In this yeare complaint was 
made to the Stationers Company, that John Foxe's Book 
of Martyrs which was first printed in 1562-3 was out of 
print, and that a fresh edition was urgently needed. Mr. 
Hansard in Typographia states that Richard Day, the son 
of the eminent printer John Day, was " concerned in 
Foxe's Book of Martyrs," and in the records of Stationers 
Hall the book is referred to as "in Richard Day's privilege " 
Day's interest in the book had however been acquired by 
the Company, who owned the copyright. The Company 
had printed a sixth edition in 1610, and being unwilling to 
print another out of their own funds, they entered into 
an agreement with sixteen members of the Company of 
whom Richard Moore was one, for an edition, or as it was 
then called an impression of 1600 copies. The partners 
were to have three years to dispose of the impression and 
the use of a warehouse in Stationers Hall. 

The price to the partners was to be 45s. 8d. every book, 
delivering 25 books to every quarterne of a hundred ac- 
cording to the custom of the country, copies delivered after 
Ladyday, and before 1st September, to be paid for at 



Michaelmas next following, or within one month after, 
and copies delivered after Michaelmas and before 1st 
March to be paid for at Ladyday, then next or within one 
month after, " and the like tyme to be allowed from Mid- 
summer and from Christmas, and soe from six months to 
six months." 

It was also agreed that " if any shali take up but 12 of 
the said books at one tyme, that notwithstanding he shall 
have the next tyme delivered unto him of the said books, 
13 to the dozen." 

The partners were not themselves printers and the im- 
pression bears the imprint of A. Islip, F. Kyngston, and 
R. Young. Richard Moore who carried on his business 
in or near Fleet Street, must have at this time attained 
a considerable position in his trade, and it is gratifying to 
find that in his success he did not forget his native town, 
for the same year that he entered into this partnership, he 
presented a copy of this impression, comprising the three 
large folio black letter volumes now preserved in St. 
Laurence, to the parish, on the first volume of which is 
inscribed on the cover " The gift of Richard More, Stationer 
of London, to the Parish Churche of Aplebye, in Westmor- 
land, 1632." 

These volumes were formerly chained in the church, 
and the iron ring to which the chain was attached is pre- 
served on the cover of the first volume. 

On the 2nd October, 1633, Moore was chosen into the 
court of assistants, but it does not appear that he ever 
attended any court meeting. 

In addition to the book before mentioned, the following 
works are entered in the Stationers registers under his 

1608 Sept. 6 The life of Galeaggo Garacciolo Marquis of Vico, 


1609 Oct. 10 A Sermon preached at Paules Crosse the 7th of 

May 1609 by George Benson, D. D. 



1G10 May 8 Ffrudigraphia the Synopsis or Epitome of Survcigh 


1611 May 18 Ignatius his Conclave or his enthronization in a late 

Election in Hell, &c. 

1612 May 19 Doctrinall and Morall — Observations concerning re- 

ligion, &c. by John Copley Semynary priest. 

1612 May 19 An Introduction to an old — &c. (sic) 

1613 Dec. 20 Googes husbandry Englandes helicon. 

1617 Feb. 10 The Parable of Poyson by William Crashawe. 

1618 Dec. 11 A Treatise of Hawkes and Hawkinge by Edmond 

1620 April 11 A feast for worms set forth in a Poem in the history 

of Jonah written by Francis Quarlesse Gent. 
1620 May 4 Via Recta ad vitam longam or a plaine Philosophi- 

call Discourse of the nature, faculties &c. of all 

such thinges as by way of nourishment make for 

the preservation of health by Tobias Venner 

Doctor of Phisick. 
1620 Sept. 23 A Brief and accurate treatise concerning the taking 

of the fume of Tobacco written by Tobias Venner 

Doctor of Physick in Bath. 
1620 Jany. 10 Hadassa or the history of Queene Hester with 

Meditacon divine and Morall written by Francis 

Quarlesse Gent. 

1620 March 6 Musgraves motives or his reasons for his cessacon 

from the Doctrines of the Church of Rome. 

1621 March 2G Certain selected Odes of Horace with other Poems 

annexed and translated by John Ashmore Gent. 

1626 March 6 The principles of saving truth. 

1627 April 10 Omen Roonae Authore John Robathan. 

1627 Novr. 15 The Hautye heart humbled by Master Jerome. 

1628 Octr. 4 The Devout Christian Communicant by N. H. 

1628 Octr. 9 All Sermons and other Tracates as the Right Rev- 
erend Father in God Lancelot Lord Bishop of 
Winton deceased (Bishop Andrews) left perfect 
and fitt to be published. 

1631 April 29 A Book of Praiers and Meditacons called the Chris, 
tian Storehouse by John Gee. 

Several of the above Books will be found in Mr. Bul- 
len's Catalogue of early English books in the British 
Museum Library. 



Moore did not live long after his admission to the 
governing body of his company, for in April, 1634, he 
died at the early age of 50, leaving a widow and four sons. 
The following is a copy of his will, which was proved in 
the Commissary Court of London, in May, 1634, by his 

In the Name of God Amen. I Richard Moore Stationer of the 
Parish of St. Dunstans in the West being sick in body but of pfect 
mind and memory blessed be God doe constitute and make this my 
last Will and Testament in manner and form as followeth Imprimis 
I commend my soule into the hands of God my mercifull Father in 
Jesus Christ my Redeemer by whose meritts alone I believe lam 
justified from all my sines and shall be saved from death hell and 
condemnation And I will that my body be buryed devoutly at the 
discretion of my Executor in sure and certain hope of a blessed 
resurrection unto eternal life Item I bequeath to my four sons John 
Godfrey Joseph and Jonathan one thousand pound to be divided 
among them in four equal porcons And if any of them shall dye be- 
fore they come to the age of twenty and one years then his or their 
part to be divided equally among the survivours Item I bequeath 
forty shillings to be distributed to the ancient poore people of Appleby 
in Westmorland Item I doe give twenty shillings to the poore people 
of this parish I doe make my dear and loving Wife Anne Moore full 
and sole Executrix of this my last Will and Testament And my desire 
is that if this my Will be not in all points set downe according to 
forme in lawe yet that it may be interpreted according to my true and 
simple meaning as is before expressed in the best manner I could — 
In wittnes whereof I doe set my hand and seale this 15th of Aprill in 
the yeare of our Lord One thousand six hundred thirty and fower — 
Richard Moore — Signed and sealed in the presence of us — Henry 
Burton — Henry Hood. 

It is evident from the bequest to his sons that he must 
have been as successful and prudent as most north country 
men who go south ; the last record I can trace relating to 
him is in November, 1636, when his widow applied to the 
court of the Stationers Company to allow her " Livery 
part in the English Stock " of the company to be conferred 
upon Mr. Chappell. The application was unusual, as the 
" English Stock " was a trading partnership amongst 



certain members of the Company, which yielded very large 
profits in which the widows of deceased partners were 
permitted to participate during widowhood, but in this 
case it was granted. 

The late Mr. Blades ascertained that there is at Bow- 
ness a copy of " the paraphrase upon the Gospels " dated 
1516-20, on the cover of which is the iron ring to which a 
chain was formerly attached, but he was not aware of the 
existence of any other chained book in Westmorland. 

The following is a list of all the Westmorland boys 
(other than Richard Moore), who were bound at Stationers' 
hall, between 1560 and 1640. 

1564 Feby, 21 John Ellirye the Sonne of Peter Ellyrye of Winder- 

marre in the County Westmerlonde husbandman 
was bound apprentice to Garrad Dewes from the 
Feast of Purification of the Virgin Mary 1563 for 
" tenne yeres." 

1565 July Edward Haryson the Sonne of Cuthberte Haryson 

of Banton in the County of Westmoreland hus- 
bandman was bound Apprentice to Olyver Wilkes 
Citizen and Stationer of London from the Feaste 
of Saynte John Baptiste 1565 for 8 yeres. 

1567 Thomas Baglay " Sonne of Robert Baglaye late of 

Kendall in the Countye of Yorke deceased " was 
apprenticed to Robert Hackforth from the Feast 
of Pentecoste 1567 for seven yeres. 

1586 Aug. 8 Mathue Warcop son of Richard Warcop of Cowley 

in the Countie of Westmorland husbandman was 
apprenticed to Abell Jeffes for seven yeres. 

1588 Jan. 16 Thomas Halle Son of Henry Hall of the parish of 
Musgrave in the County of Westmorland hus- 
bandman was apprenticed to William Leekc for 
eight yeres from Michaelmas 1588. 

x 593 J une 2 3 Richard Atkinson Son of Reynold Atkinson of 
Kendal in the County of Westmorland Cord- 
wainer was apprenticed to Thomas Stuckey for 
seven yeres from that day. 

1600 Feby. 4 Joseph Morrys Son of Joseph Morrys of Lower 
Most Hilton in the County of (?) Westmorland 
Yeoman was apprenticed to Bonham Norton for 
seven years from that day. 



Immediately after the entry of this binding is a note 
" Provided always that this apprentice is not to be trayned 
in the Stationers' trade nor any facultie belonging to the 
Companye of Stationers." 

1603 June 7 Edward Grangier Sonne of William Grangier of 

Soulbie in the County of Westmorland Y'man 
was appd to Nicholas Linge for eight yeres from 
that day. 

1603 Oct. 25 Edward Jackson Sonne of Thomas Jackson of Ken- 
dall in the Barrondey of Kendal Yeoman was 
appd to Richard Brockbank for eight yeres from 
Sainct John Baptist last past. 

1605 March 3 Guilbert Wharton Son of Richard Wharton of Shape 
Abbey in the Countie of Westmorland Gent, was 
appd to Richard Ockold for eight yeres from 
Xmas 1604. 

1615 Augt 21 Lancelot Barnett Sonne of Wm. Barnett of Brough 
under Stane-moor in the Countie of Westmer- 
lande Sho Maker was appd to Geo. Ward for nine 
yeares from that day. 

1G19 Nov. 3 Anthonie Wetherell Sonne of Anthonie Wetherell of 
Kirkby Steven in the County of Westmorland 
Clarke was appd to George Edd for seaven yeares 
from Christmas then next. 

But subsequently this entry was crossed out of the book 
by order of the Court of Assistants 

1620 Aug, 7 "William Washington Sonne of Randall Washing- 

ton of Regill in the County of Westmorland Gent, 
was appd to Anne Helme widdowe of John Helme 
for eight yeares. 

lie was made free the 3rd Septr., 1827, and carried on 
a business as a Bookseller and Publisher, in London, and 
in 1628 published an edition of Sir Francis Bacon's 
Advancement of Learning. 

1623 Jany. 19 William Jackson Sonne of Joh Jackson of Brough 
in the Countie of Westmd. Yeoman was appd 
to John Bennett for eight years. 



1624 J any. 17 John Atkinson Sonne of Richard Atkinson of Farl- 
ton in the Countie of Westmerland Yeoman 
was appd to Thomas Gubbins for seven yeares. 

1626 Novr. 6 John Applegarth Son of Thomas Applegarth of 

Underley in the Countie of Westmerland Yeoman 
was appd to Hugh Derrye. 

1627 Septr. 3 George Hutton Sonne of William Hutton of Agger- 

ford in ye Countye of Westmerland Yeoman was 
appd to Michaell Sparkes for eight years. 

He was made free 4th May, 1635 and traded as a Book- 
seller and Publisher, and entered in the registers, on the 
23rd April, 1638, " Meditacons called a Spiritual Spicery, 
translated out of Latin by Richard Braithwait, Esquire," 
and on the 23rd Sept., 1639, " a tragedy of Albertus Wal- 
lenstein late Duke of Friedland by Henry Glapthorne." 

1629 Novr. 2 Joseph Range Son of Moth Range of Kendall in the 
Countye of Westmerland Miller was apprenticed 
to John Hairlond for ten yeres. 

On the 9th March following the binding was erased and 
the Indentures delivered up. 

1633 June 22 Samuel Hutton Sonn of Wm. Hutton of Farleton in 
the County of Westmland Yeoman was appren- 
ticed to Hen. Eve for seven yeares. 

1637 Deer, 9 " Roger Smith the Sonne of James Smith of Kendall 
in the County of Westmorland Yeoman " was 
apprenticed to John Willmott for seven yeares. 

Thus it appears that prior to 1640, twenty Westmorland 
boys were apprenticed to the trade of Booksellers and 
Publishers, and of the three who, having served their In- 
dentures, commenced, to trade viz : Richd. Moore of 
Appleby, Wm. Washington of Aggerford, and Geo. Hutton 
of Farleton, the former attained considerable success. 


Akt. XXIV. The Appleby Charters. By W. Hewitson, 

Town Clerk of Appleby. 
Read at that place, July 3, 1890. 

" A PPLEBY hath been a Town Corporate of very an- 
-^*- cient time." Thus Nicolson and Burn in their 
History and Antiquities of Cumberland and Westmorland, 
1777. How long we do not at this day know any more 
than did they, as the original charter of incorporation has 
been lost or destroyed, and no record of its date remains 
in the possession of the corporation. The same historians, 
referring further to Appleby, say : — '■ It is in fact evident 
that they were governed by a mayor and other corporation 
officers, perhaps as early as any other corporation in the 

The statute 13 Edward I, c. 1 (1285), which relates to 
the acknowledgment of a statute merchant, runs in the 
original Norman French (the legal and parliamentary lan- 
guage of the period), that the merchant shall cause his 
debtor to come before the mayor of Appleby or some chief 
warden of a city or other good town " Face venir sun 
dettur devaunt le meyre de Appelby.'" The English transla- 
tion of the act however mentions the mayor of London and 
not the mayor of Appleby. 

The earliest Royal Grant now in the possession of the 
corporation is a charter of Henry II. It is undated, but 
I am informed by Mr. Norcliffe, of Langton Hall, near 
Malton, Yorkshire (who has gone through the town chest 
and either copied or taken extracts from every document 
therein, and whose assistance I gladly acknowledge) that 
it was granted in 1179, as, he says, is certain from the pipe 
rolls, published by the Newcastle Society of Antiquaries in 
1847. The burgesses paid 40 marks for it. By this charter 



the king granted and confirmed to his burgesses of Ap- 
pleby, all the liberties and privileges which his burgesses 
of York had. I would point out that this is not a charter 
of incorporation, but a grant of privileges to an existing 

I next come to a charter of king John, dated at York, 
the 26th day of March, in the first year of his reign (1200). 
and which cost the corporation 100 marks. This charter, 
like that of Henry, grants and confirms to the burgesses 
of Appleby, all the liberties and privileges which the 
burgesses of York had, and specifies those privileges as 
freedom from toll and stallage, and pontage and lastage 
throughout England except in the city of London, and 
goes on to state that if the burgesses of York should after- 
wards have that exemption in the city of London, the 
burgesses of Appleby should have the same. By the same 
charter king John granted to the burgesses the borough 
of Appleby, to hold in their hands, rendering to the sheriff 
of Westmorland the rent due for the same, one moiety at 
Michaelmas and the other at Easter. 

The burgesses soon had occasion to test the validity of 
the charter of John, for we find them, in the 4th Edward 
I (1276), bringing a special writ against Roger de Clifford 
and Isabella his wife, and Roger de Laburne and Idonea 
his wife, alleging, amongst other things, that the aforesaid 
Roger and Roger did not permit the said burghers to take 
stall rent in all markets and fairs at the said town, nor 
customs of such merchants as did traffic there, as they and 
their ancestors, in time past, were accustomed to do ; and 
did distrain them day by day, to compel them to do fealty 
to the said Roger and Roger, for their tenements in the 
town aforesaid, as if they were their homagers, of whom 
they did not hold anything at all, nor of any other but their 
lord the king ; to the great damage of their lord the king 
and the aforesaid burghers. By the answer of the defen- 
dants it appeared that they laid claim to the borough, by 



virtue of a charter of King John, granting to Robert de 
Veteripont, great grandfather of the said Isabella and 
Idonea, " Appleby and Burgh with all their appendages, 
with the sheriffwick and rent of our county of Westmor- 
land, and the services of all our tenants, who hold not by 
knights service." This charter was granted in the 4th year 
of the king's reign, and therefore subsequently to the grant 
to the burgesses. Issue being joined, inquiry was made 
by jurors of the counties of Northumberland, Durham, 
and York who were considered as less likely to be biassed 
than local jurors, and who found that neither Robert de 
Vetripont nor any that succeeded him as heir, ever had 
seizin of the borough of Appleby, in which the burghers 
dwelt ; but that king John gave to the said Robert, 
" old Appilby where the bondmen dwell " (Vetus Appilby 
ubi villani manent), now Bongate, with the appurtenances, 
which lands the king had in his hands, by reason of the 
trespass committed by Hugh de Morville, who being at- 
tainted for the part he took in the death and beatification 
of that " rebellious prelate " of whom Henry II had wished 
to be rid, (Thomas a' Beckett), had forfeited the castles 
of Appleby and Brough held by him. Judgment was there- 
fore given in favour of the burgesses. 

The next charters in order of date, are those of 16 
Henry III (1232), 14 Edward I (1286), and 5 Edward 
III (1332), confirming that of king John. The charter of 
Edward I, however, provided that the burgesses might 
if they thought fit, pay the rent for the borough into the 
exchequer by the hands of their own bailiffs, instead of 
through the sheriffs ; probably in consequence of the de- 
fendants in the suit above mentioned having laid claim 
to the homage of the burgesses; at any rate the burgesses 
readily availed themselves of the privilege, as appears 
from the vouchers for subsequent payments of rent. That 
of Edward III having recited that the borough had been 
seized by Edward II for arrears of rent, and was then in 



the possession of the crown, re-granted the town to the 
burgesses, on the same terms as before. 

Next are the charters of 20 Henry VIII (152:8), 1 
Mary (1553), and 4 James I (1607), and then that of 16 
James I (1618), confirmatory of letters patent of Philip 
and Mary, reducing the annual rent from 20 marks to two 
marks on account of the devastation of the town by the 
Scots, and discharging the arrears. 

In this connection I may state that there is a quietus 
in 7 Henry VIII, another in 25 Henry VIII, and a third 
in 2 and 3 Philip and Mary reducing the fee farm rent 
to two marks yearly, following Inquisitions which found 
that on St. Stephen's day in the year 1388, the town 
was burned by the Scots, and that the greatest part lay 
still in ruins. 

I may also here mention an order (of which a copy in 
the writing of the period remains with the corporation 
muniments), of Henry (supposed to be Henry VII), dated 
the 27th of May, in the 7th year of his reign (1492), 
addressed to the sheriffs of Westmorland, which, after 
reciting that divers of his progenitors had granted to the 
inhabitants of Appleby, divers franchises, liberties, and 
freedoms as in the holding of fairs and keeping of markets 
with other liberties, such as the citizens of York had, 
continues as follows : — 

We being credibly informed that the said towne hath been by the 
Scotts destroied wasted and burned with their said charters of 
liberties by our said progenitours to thaym graunted afore this tyme 
whereby the people of the countrey thereaboute have loste their 
resort and commying to the said Towne whiche towne withoute we of 
our especial grace putte to thinhabitants of the same our hande of 
pitie and mercye is like to fall to thuttrest ruyne and decaye We for 
this and other causes us moving will and charge you that ye in such 
places as ye most expedient within the said countie do make pro- 
clamation that our plaisir is that the said inhabitaunts have and enjoye 
the said faires and marketts to bee holden upon the Monday or ells the 
Saturday onys in the week as it shal be thoughte moost best for the 



wele of the country With all other liberties fredomes and fraunchises 
as largely and in as ample wise as any of their predecessors had used 
and had in the daies of any of our progenitors of this tyme without 
any interruption hurt or hindering of us or any of our officers to the 

We may estimate the population of the borough from 
the fee farm rent, which was paid at the rate of 2d. for each 
burgage. Taking the rent of 20 marks (£13 6s. 8d.), it 
gives 1600 burgages, and allowing a household of six persons 
for each burgage, which is probably a low computation, 
we get a population of about ro,ooo which would mean a 
town of considerable importance, at the time in question. 
The reduced rent of two marks (£1 6s. 8d.), by the same 
calculation gives us a population of about one thousand, from 
which we may gather the extent of the devastation 
wrought by the Scots. 

The privileges of the burgesses are further confirmed by 
charter of 3 Charles I (1628). This charter recites a 
charter of Elizabeth, which however I do not find with 
the records. 

In the time of the Commonwealth, a charter would 
seem to have been granted to, or rather imposed upon the 
burgesses, for on the Restoration, according to the Rev. 
Thomas Machell, " the Mayor would not handle the staff 
of authority, nor suffer the oath of office to be administered 
unto him, until he had sent for Oliver's Charter, and in 
the face of the court, cut it in pieces with his own hands, 
and then looking about, he espied some taylors, and cast 
to them, saying, it should never be a measure unto him." 

The burgesses appear to have surrendered all the powers 
franchises and authorities concerning the election of mayor, 
recorder, aldermen, town clerk, common councilmen, 
coroner, and other officers to James II, who by charter in 
the first year of his reign (1685), incorporated the borough 
by the name of " The mayor, aldermen and capital 
burgesses of the borough of Appleby," constituted the 



following offices viz: — Mayor, recorder, town clerk, 12 
aldermen besides the mayor, 16 capital burgesses, sword 
bearer, serjeant at mace two chamberlains and two bailiffs, 
nominated the first mayor, recorder, aldermen, town clerk 
and capital burgesses to hold office during life, provided 
for future elections, and granted a fair and a court of pic 

Shortly after the grant of this charter the king issued a 
Quo warranto against this and other corporations, and we 
find that by surrender dated the 4th of June, 1688, the 
corporation yielded up to him his heirs and successors, 
all the powers, franchises and liberties whatsoever, vested 
in them concerning the electing, nominating, and appoin- 
ting of any persons into the offices of the said borough, 
and prayed his majesty to regrant the said liberties and 
franchises. It appears, however, from the proclamation 
issued by the king in 1688, that this surrender and the 
previous one in 1685, were never inrolled, by reason 
whereof the corporation got rid of the charter of James 
II the same being void, having been granted in considera- 
tion of a void surrender. The subsequent elections were in 
consequence governed by ancient usage. 

Appleby was not included in the schedules to the 
Municipal Corporations Act, 1835, and the provisions of 
that act, did not affect its constitution. 

In 1883 an act was passed which dissolved as from the 
25th of March, 1885 all the corporations which were then 
unreformed, except those to which in the meantime, her 
majesty should be pleased to grant new charters, ex- 
tending to them the provisions of the municipal corpora- 
tions acts. Appleby was included in the schedule to this 
act, as one of the places to which it was considered by the 
commissioners, who had previously held inquiries on the 
subject, that the municipal corporations acts might pro- 
perly be applied, if the inhabitants so wished. The in- 
habitants, therefore, not wishing that the ancient corpora- 


tion should become a thing of the past, petitioned her 
majesty for a new charter of incorporation, and her 
majesty being graciously pleased to accede to the prayer 
of the petition, a new charter was granted accordingly 
on the 20th day of July, 1885, extending to Appleby the 
provisions of the municipal corporation acts, and initia- 
ting a new era in the government of the town, by placing 
the same on a popular basis. 

In conclusion it has not been my purpose to write 
a history of this ancient borough : I have simply endea- 
voured to place before you a bare account of the several 
royal charters and grants, from which I think you will 
glean that the town has a long past history, and has 
undergone vicissitudes. Its motto however has been, and 
I trust will continue to be " Necferro Nee igni." 


Art. XXV. The Parish of Stanwix. By the Rev. J. R. 

Wood, M.A., Vicar of Stanwix. 
Read at Appleby, July 3, 1S90. 

TjlHE following explains itself, but many items must 
-*- have been added by a subsequent hand to Dr. Todd. 




Wherein are carefully sett down not only all the 

Accounts that Relate to the church : but also all other 

matters that could be mett w th in Old Records & Writeings 

that any way concern the Vicaridge of Stanwix 

Stainweggrs, or Staynwyggrs. 

Begun by Mr. Hugh Todd A.M. Canon of the Church 

of Carlisle, and Vicar of Stanwix 

Ano Domini 1685. 

An Account of the Vicaridge of Stanwix. 

The Church of Stanwix is dedicated to Saint Michael the Arch 
Angell : and is placed on an Eminence or Rising Ground ; as most 
Churches are, which are Dedicated to that Saint. 

It was under the care of a Rector, who enjoy'd all Tithes and other 
Dues from the Parishioners : till about the year of God 1 140 or there 
abouts : At w ch time it was Appropriated by K. H. I to the Cathedral] 
and Conventuall Church at Carlile : Both the Bishop and the (then) 
Prior [Walter who had been Confessor to H. I] & Convent partaking 
of the Revenues of it ; and being both concerned to provide an Able 
Clerk to supply the Cure. 

N.B. — I find that about that time the Bishop and the Members of 
his Cathedrall Church Enjoy'd many revenues in common ; as they 
did the Tithes of this Church. Sed quaere. 

A.D. 1 140 or thereabouts Walter Prior of Karliol annexed to the 
Convent the Rectory of Stanwix ; wch King H. I had bestowed him ; 
and the Donation was confirmed by the King, and Athelwold the 1st 
Bishop of Carliol. 

By this it should be seen that the Parish of Stanwix was within 
the Forest of Englewood, and therefore (according to the laws) both 



the Tithes belonged to the King, and the Presentation to the place 

was lodged in the King too. 

Ano Dom' 1254. John de Halton, then Bp. of Carlisle confer- 
red Holy Orders on 46 * Persons in the Parish 
Church of Staynwygs. It may be thought that 
the Church was larger than it is at present, 
quaere de hoc. 

Ano Dom' 1300. One Sir [Ds] Adam, Vicar of Staynwiggs was com- 
missionated by the Bishop John de Halton 
a Procter to receive from the jus- 

Ano Dom. 1309 The said Bishop collates Gilbert de Darlington to 
the Vicaridge of Staynwiggs, saving to Him- 
self a Pension of Half a mark, as was ('tis said) 
then usuall. 

A.D. 1316 John de Halton Bp. collates to the Vicaridge of 

Staynwigg, Thomas Hogg Vacant by the death 
of John de Appleby late Vicar : saving a pen- 
sion of I a mark payable at Michs. 

A.D. 1324. John de Halton confers Orders at the Parish 

Church at Staynwiggs. 

A.D. 1333. John de Kirkby appoints the Vicar of Stainwix to 

receive the offending Clergy from the Justices 
of Cumberland ; (Adam de Crokedant then one 
of the Justices). 

A.D. 1362. One William, Hermite of St. Peter's Chappell near 

Lindstock, gives to ye Church of Staynwiggs a 
cow instead of a Mortuary. 

A.D. 1366. I find a complaint against Robert de Bix Vicar of 

Stanwiggs : in the time of Thomas de Appleby 
Bishop of Carlile.t 

Ano Domini 1570. Henry Brown was then Vicar of Stanwix. 

A.D. 1577. Richard Barnes, then Bishop collates Richard 

Phayer to the Vicaridge of Stanwix, who re- 
signed the Rectory of Cliburn. 

A.D. 1597. Richard Edgard was collated by John May, then 

Lord Bp. of Carlisle to the Vicaridge. 

A.D. 1586. John Braithwaite was collated to ye Vicaridge 

of Stanwix, vacant by death. 

* I make the number to be 57, but a page is misplaced in Halton's register, 
and two ordinations may have got mixed. Editor. 

j The above arc extracts (somewhat inaccurate) from the registers of the Bishops 
of Carlisle, which registers it is hoped will someday be printed. Editor. 



A° Domi 1590. I find an order to have Issued from the Bishop, 

to pull down an old out house, w ch belong' d to 
the Vicaridge : and to keep the house and barn 
in good repair. 

A. Domi 1602. Dr. John May, then Bishop, collates Thomas 

Langhorn A.B. to the Vicaridge, vacant by 
Death of John Braithwait, last Incumbent. 

A.D. 1614. Dr. John May, Bishop, collates John Robinson 

Master of Arts to the Vicaridge, vacant by 
death of Tho. Langhorn. 

A.D. 1624 One John Jackson was Vicar, who voluntarily 

resign'd the Vicaridge. 

A.D. 1625. Dr. Richard Milburn then Bishop collates Robert 

Brown to ye Vicaridge, vacant by resignation 
of John Jackson. 

A.D. 1638. Richard Welshman was collated by Bp. Potter, 

(aut circ) his Uncle. He was vicar of Crossby four years. 

In his time there was convenient House and 
Barne w ch vacant for about a year. 

A.D. 1653. Joseph Nicholson A.M. After his time ye place 

aut circ. was supply'd by Itinerants. 

1660. Mr. George Buchanan, Prebendary of Carliol was 

collated by Bp. Stearne and Instituted into the 
Vicaridge 24th April, 1661. At his death he 
gave 5£ to ye Parish, the Interest of w ch is 
to be given to a Schoolmaster, as ye Vicar 
shall order. Mrs. Nicholson has ye money in 
her hand. 

1666. Henry Marshall A.M. Prebendary and Chancellor 

of Carlisle was collated to the Vicaridge of 
Stanwix Marc. 31, A.D. 1666. 

1667. Jeremy Taylor, A.M. Chaplain to Bp. Rainbow 

and Prebendary of Carlile was collated to 
Stanwix June 4, 1667. 

1676. John Tomlinson. 

1685. Hugh Todd A.M. and Fellow of University College 

Oxon. (Prebendary of Carlile) was Instituted to 
the Vic. of Stanwix Oct. A.D. 1685, who re- 
signed it to the Bp. Feb. 23. 1688, ex mero 
motu animam liberare cupiens. Gregis Tui 
Miserere Deus. 

1688. Nathanael Spooner A.M. and late Rector of Clib- 

burne in Westmorland was collated by Dr. 



Thos. Smith L d Bishop of Carlile and Institu- 
ted into the Vicaridge of Stanvvix, then vacant. 

1703. Geo. Fleming A.M. was collated to the Vicaridge 

vacant by the death of Mr. Spooner, late in- 
cumbent Augst. 2 1703 and resigned it Mar. ye 
28, 1705. 

1705. Tho. Benson A.M. Chaplain to the R' Rev d . 

William Nicolson L d Bp. of Carlile was collated 
to the Vicaridge of Stanwix Mar. 28, 1705 
vacant by the resignation of Mr. George 

1727. John Waugh A.M. Chancellor and Prebendary 

of Carlile was collated to the Vicaridge of Stan- 
wix vacant by death of the Reverend Dr. Thos. 
Benson, July the 15th, 1727. 

1766. James Farish Lecturer of the Cathedral of Car- 

lisle was collated to the Vicaridge of Stanwix 
vacent by the death of the Rev. Dr. Jno, 
Waugh 11 May, 1765. 

Receipts of the Vicarage of Stanwix 
From Midsummer 1745 to Midsummer 1746. 

£ •- d. 
Glebe Rent 06 00 00 Allowed in consideration of loss by Rebels 5s. 
Tythe &c. 34 00 00 Loss for Rebels allowed for £8 8s. 2d. 

Note. — The light Horse joined with Jeram Tullie, Esq. : Joseph 
Nicolson of Hawkesdale, Esq. : Willm Thomlinson of the Gill, Cald- 
beck and Stanwix, but was not charged in both wards, only in 

The above is extracted from a Book of Receipts of the living, begun 
in 1705 by Dr. Benson. 

On " Light Horse " see these Transactions, vol. viii, p. 304. 


Art. XXVI. Note on Sandford's History of Cumberland. 

By George Watson. 
Read at Appleby, July 3rd, 1890. 

IN Sandford's History of Cumberland circa 1675, lately 
published by the Cumberland and Westmorland Anti- 
quarian and Archaeological Society, at page 37 occurs a 
quaint paragraph relative to the so-called " Giants Grave," 
at Penrith. He says : — 

I was told from Mr. Page himself: a stranger gentleman coming to 
the Crown Inn at peareth prayed his host to get him oth discret Mrs. 
of the Town to supe with him and he brought this Mr. Page the 
Marshall or Steward and Schoolmr. The stranger said he came to see 
the antiquities and drew forth a paper that said that Sir Hugh Cesario 
lived in disert place in a rocke : a marshall man : like knight errant : 
killing monster man and beast: The place he lived in called Isey 
Perlis, where a little from thence is 3 vaults in a rocke 100 may live 
in : and he was buried in the north side of the church ith green 
field : & they went to the church & on the north side there was 2 
crosses distant the length of a man one at head and other at feet. 

Thus far the story is a communication from Mr. Page to 
Sandford, the concluding part of the paragraph being a 
reminiscence of Sandford's own : — 

And was opened when I was a Scoller ther by William Turner & 
ther found the great Long Shank bones & other bones of a man and 
a broad sword besides found then by the Church Wardens. 

Now as the visit of the strange antiquary took place 
when Mr. Page was schoolmaster (presumably of the 
Penrith Grammar School), which according to Nicolson 
and Burn * was from 1581 to 91, and Sandford wrote his 
history in 1675 it becomes an interesting question, when 

* Vol ii, p. 410. 



during the 84 or 94 years interval between the strange 
antiquary's visit and Sandford writing his history, did 
Page and Sandford meet. 

I propose to enquire into this by collating such facts 
about the two men as I have been able to meet with. 

First as to Edmund Sandford's place in the pedigree of 
the Sandfords of Askham and Howgill, as given by Nicol- 
son and Burn.* There does not appear to be any room 
for doubt that the author was Edmund, the second son of 
Thomas Sandford, who stands 9th in the pedigree and 
who died 7th James 1st (1610). Now as this Thomas 
Sandford had five daughters born after Edmund, the date 
of the latter's birth could not in the natural course of life 
be much later than about 1600 ; of course it might be 
earlier, but if much earlier, would make him too old a 
man in 1675 to be writing a history of Cumberland. 
There is no evidence of an Edmund Sandford in ths suc- 
ceeding generation, and if there had been he could not 
have conversed with Mr. Page who died in 1623. Dating 
Sandford's birth then at 1600, and supposing him to have 
been 16 years old when he was a pupil at Penrith Gram- 
mar School, we get the probable date of 1616 for the 
opening of the grave by William Turner, and the finding 
of the bones and broad sword. 

The long shank bones of a man mentioned by Sandford 
do not I think mean anything abnormal, but only the 
thigh bones, as distinguished from the shorter shin bones : 
it is also to be noted that Sandford describes the crosses 
as the length of a man distant, not of a giant 15 feet of altit- 
tude, to which towering dimensions he has since grown. 
When and by whom then was the "giant" introduced? 
He is I believe first met with in print in Dr. Todd's 
appendix to Gibson's edition of Camden, in 1695 (only 20 
years after the date assigned to the writing of Sandford's 

* Vol. i. pp. 3S7, 42.3. 



history), but where the learned doctor found the " giant " 
we are not told ; he only quotes as his authority " they 
say " or " they tell you," and says that the crosses were 
then five yards apart, the length of the giant who lay 
between them. It looks very like as if the learned doctor 
was the father of the Penrith giant. 

Of Sandford's informant Mr. Page, we learn from the 
parish register the following. He married in 1586, and 
the fact that his marriage in another parish is so carefully 
recorded in the Penrith register shows he was a man of 
some consequence : the entry is as follows. — " 1586, June 
12th day was Anthonie Paig and Isabell Lancaster mar- 
ried at Mardell chappell by Parson Burton." In due 
course the " chrystnings " of five of his children are re- 
corded up to September, 1597, when the plague broke out 
in Penrith, and during the fifteen months of its ravages in 
the parish Anthony Paig had a son born and lost his wife 
with the pestilence. In 1601 he witnessed the induction of 
the Rev. John Hastie to the living of Penrith, being described 
as Mr. Anthony Page, steward (presumably of the manor) ; 
he is not there described as schoolmaster so far confirming 
N. and B's. record, that he ceased to be schoolmaster 
in 1591. In 1612 a daughter of Mr. Anthony Page is 
buried, and in 1623 Mr. Anthony Page himself is buried : 
his age we can only guess at (ages at that time not 
being registered), supposing however that in 158 1, when 
he first held the two responsible positions of master of the 
Grammar School, and steward of the manor, he was 35 or 
40 years of age, he would be about 80 at his death, in 1623. 
When then did Sandford hear from Page, the story of the 
strange antiquary's visit ? I think it is almost certain that 
it was, when Sandford was, as he says, " a scoller there " 
(at the Grammar School), Page then being far advanced 
in years : probably it was on the occasion of the opening 
of the grave by William Turner, which incident might 
well recall to the old man's recollection the strange anti- 


quary's visit some 30 years before, which he then re- 
lated to the intelligent pupil at the Grammar School : 
the way Sandford groups Page's story of the anti- 
quary's visit, the opening of the grave, and his own 
pupilage at the Grammar School into one paragraph 
would appear to favour this assumption. The name of 
William Turner, mentioned by Sandford, is also found in 
the register; he was married in 1614, and his children's 
" chrystnings " are from time to time recorded. 

In reading Sandford's quaint account of the ancient 
monuments at Penrith, one is naturally led to ask how it 
is that he makes no mention of the four hog-backed 
side stones, and also to wonder if he, before penning his 
accounts, refreshed his memory by a visit to Penrith, 
for, if he wrote solely from recollection of what he had 
heard and seen 60 years before, we must make allowance 
for omissions and errors. 

If it was a fact that in Sandford's time the two crosses 
were only the length of an ordinary man apart, I should 
conjecture that the two crosses, and four hog-backed 
side stones, then marked two distinct graves in a line with 
and contiguous to each other, the cross at the head of the 
eastern grave being at the foot of the western one, each 
grave having a pair of hog-backed stones to itself, and I 
should be led to believe that the cross at the head of the 
eastern grave, was afterwards removed to the foot, thus 
forming to all appearances one grave, 15 feet long, to 
which popular fancy afterwards gave the name of the 
" giant's grave ". 

As tending to confirm this theory I may mention that 
while the western cross stands in what is evidently its 
original socket stone, a regularly shaped circular stone of 
Blencow or Lamonby flesh coloured rock, same as the 
crosses themselves, the eastern cross is clumsily fixed into 
an unwrought square block of local red freestone, now 
sunk a foot below the surface of the soil : moreover it 



stands (as also do the hog-backed stones), upon a grue- 
some deposit of churchyard soil, bones andbuildingrubbish, 
making it certain that this cross at least does not occupy 
its original position ; perhaps it had fallen and in its fall 
had broken two of the hog-backed stones in the way we 
now see them. 

Having lately directed the work of raising the hog- 
backed stones from their previous embedded condition, 
and placing them upon base stones bedded upon a deep 
foundation of concrete I had an opportunity of making 
the observations above recorded, to which I may add that 
the artificial deposit upon which the eastern cross and 
hog-backs stand, extended downwards seven feet to 
where the undisturbed boulder clay comes in, and at the 
bottom of the rubbish I found a piece of blue willow 
pattern pot, proving the modern character of the earth 
upon which the monuments stand. 

But besides the change of relative position of the 
two crosses as inferred from Sandford and Dr. Todd dif- 
fering as to their distance apart, there is I think good 
reason to believe that an entire change in their position 
was made when the church was rebuilt in 1720-2. 
Bishop Nicolson has left it on record, that at the time 
of his visitation, 16 years before the church was rebuilt, 
the crosses and the hog-backs stood " before the great 
north door " of the old church : now if the monuments 
then occupied the same ground as now, the north door 
must have been much further eastward in the church than 
was usual. Taking this into consideration, along with 
the modern character of the ground upon which the monu- 
ments stand, I feel certain that when the church was 
rebuilt, the hog-backs and the eastern cross were moved to 
their present position, to give uninterrupted access to the 
new north door which probably occupies the same posi- 
tion as the old one did. It is not unlikely that the present 
western cross was originally the eastern one and still 



retains its old position, it being noticeable that the ground 
near its base was much firmer and quite different in 
character to that under the eastern cross, and hog-backs 
as already described. 


Art. XXVII. The Brough Idol. By F. Haverfield, M.A. 

Communicated at Appleby, July 3rd, 1890. 

IN the summer of 1886 a curious stone figure with a Roman 
inscription was brought to the Rev. W. Lyde, rector 
of Brough-under-Stainmore, by a working man who was 
said to have found it in getting water out of a " water- 
hole " at Blackmoorgate, about two miles N.E. of Brough, 
near the road to Middleton-in-Teesdale. The stone bore 
the inscription deo : arvalo saturno sex commodus 
valer vslm. It was communicated by Mr. Lyde to 
Chancellor Ferguson, and has since been published in 
several places, last by myself in the Eplicmeris Epigraphica 
(vii 1187). By the kindness of Mr. Lyde, I was able to 
get a loan of the stone. It is an undeniable forgery, but 
as some people seem still to believe in it, and as the 
hitherto undetected forger may possibly follow it up, it 
may be as well briefly to detail the exact reasons for 
denying its genuineness. The accompanying woodcuts 
are full size. 

(1). The style of carving as shown by the figure is 
obviously not Roman or antique of any sort. Mr. A. W. 
Franks, at the British Museum, to whom I showed the 
object, judged it to be a forgery twice removed from the 
truth, i.e. copied from a previous forgery. Small Roman 
figures of similar character, but genuine, are not un- 
common, and are, I believe, often imitated by forgers. 

(2). The freshness of the lettering and the preservation 
of the surface generally, are such as no genuine antique 
could show. 

(3). The character of the lettering is most damnatory. 
An uncial U for a V might conceivably pass muster, for 
it does occur occasionally on third century and later in- 
scriptions of inferior workmanship, (cil vi 17667 Rome : 



VsiiipSy 1 


auxiliaris, &c.) though I do not remember to have ever 
noticed it on any Roman inscription in Britain. Hut 
the whole style of lettering is hopeless. 

(4). The inscription itself is copied from one found at 
Brescia (Brixia) in N. Italy, and published by Rossi (in 
1693), Marini, Orelli (n. 1510) and others, lastlyby Momm- 
sen (cil v. 419S). And it stands convicted. There are in the 
books two versions of the first line, the one giving deo Alo, 
the other deo Arvalo, and as Henzen (Collcctionis Orelliance 
supplementa p. 145) and Mommsen point out, Alo is most 
undoubtedly the true reading, and Arvalo a mistake. The 
latter was, however, the ordinarily received text at one 
time : it is, indeed, given by Orelli, and it is not unnatural 
that the forger copied it instead of the less known but 
correct reading. But by doing so he stands self-condemned. 

It has been objected to me that the inscription could 
hardly have been known to anyone in Brough. But the 
inscription is not so obscure as has been thought. It is 
given by Orelli, and Orelli's book is well-known in Eng- 
land, it is also given in an even better known work, 
Facciolati's Lexicon T otitis Latinitatis (s.v. Arvalus. It 
has been objected also that the stone is not local stone. 
I do not think this proves much, for no one supposes 
the forgery was neccessarily made in Brough itself. 
I have however taken the opinion of Mr. F. W. Rudler 
on the point. He writes : — 

It seems to be a kind of mudstone such as is not uncommon among 
Silurian rocks. It is a very close grained rock, not unlike certain 
slates, but without any trace of cleavage, extremely soft so that it 
could be easily worked into shape. I do not see a<ny reason why 
such a rock should not bs found in Westmorland or Cumberland. 
But you will understand how difficult it is to attribute a given piece 
of rock to its precise geological horizon. Your specimen is not suf- 
ficiently characteristic to enable me to speak with certainty." 

* Mr. J. G. Goodchild, F.G.S., F.Z.S., who was long on the Geological Survey 
in the vicinity of Brough, says, that any amount of the stone can be found near 
Brough. Note ey Editor. 



It would be more satisfactory if we could point out the 
quarter where the forgery arose, but neither the material 
nor the workmanship afford any real clue. Forgeries are 
so uncommon in England that when one occurs it ought 
to receive every attention. 


Art. XXVIII. Orion Old Hall, or Petty Hall, Orton. 

By Fred Brooksbank Garnett, C.B. 
Read at that Place, July yd, 1890. 

IN consequence of having formerly visited this ancient 
manorial residence, and made some inquiries as to its 
history and occupiers, I have been asked to communicate 
the result to the members of our society on the present 

Dr. Taylor has already pointed out to you its leading 
architectural features, and called attention to the three 
shields sculptured on the lintel of the principal entrance, 
which bear inscriptions commemorative of the erection of 
the present structure by the Birkbeck family, viz : 


The Birkbecks were of Hornby Hall, in the parish of 
Brougham, and their pedigree for several generations is 
given in Dugdale's Visitation. 

I can find no reference in Nicolson and Burn's history 
either to Petty Hall, or to the family from whom it is 
believed to have derived its appellation, although this 
place must have been under the immediate personal obser- 
vation of Dr. Burn, who was the vicar of Orton from 1736, 
until his death in 1785. Mention is however made of the 
fact that 

One share of the Musgrave moiety of the Manor of Orton, was in the 
hands of the Warcops of Smardale, the last of whom Thomas Warcop 
of Smardale, Esq., had two daughters co-heirs, who in 34 Eliz. for 
the sum of £400 sold their moiety (as it is called) of the Manor of 
Overton (Orton) to George Birkbeck and Robert Whitehead, ofOrton 






and George Sharp of Scales, consisting of one moiety of Raisgill Hall 
Mill, and 56 Tenements of the yearly fixable arbitrary rent of £10 16 6. 

It appears however earlier than this that one William 
Birkbeck was vicar of Orton in 1453 (^3 Hen. VI), and was 
trustee of a marriage settlement of Thomas Blenkinsop, 
of Helbeck, Esq., of certain lands which the Blenkinsops 
had at Overton. In 1639 a caveat was entered by one 
Edward Newburgh, claiming to be called (to the vicarage) 
on the death or resignation of John Corney, and a like 
caveat was also entered by Thomas Barlow, M.A., Edward 
Birkbeck, and other parishioners claiming right of presen- 

There is an inscription in Orton churchyard as follows : — 

H.S.E. Edward Birkbe(ck) Parish Clark, who dyed Deer, the (? 28) 
A. Dom. 1732. (Bellasis' Church Notes). 

The signature of " Edward Birkbeck, Clark," appears in 
the terrier of glebelands, &c, belonging to Orton vicarage 
given in Bishop Nicolson's Visitation of 1704, (Miscellany 
Accounts of the Diocese of Carlile, &c, Ed. by R. S. 
Ferguson, 1877). We have already heard in the interesting 
paper read by Mr. J. H. Nicholson, M.A., that from the 
prominent manner in which some of the entries relating 
to the Birkbecks are made, they are regarded as the most 
influential people, and that amongst those who were 
" disclaimed " at the assize held at Appleby, in 1666, for 
not obeying the summons of Dugdale, when he made his 
last visitation were " Thomas Birkbeck, of Coatflat, and 
T. B. of Orton." 

Petty Hall is said to have been subsequently possessed 
by Sir Christopher Petty, of Skipton-in-Craven.* 

Over the fire place of the front room at the left hand 
end of the building, now let as a separate tenement, there 

* See pedigree of Birkbeck, Transactions vol. iv p. 392. 


302 0RT0N OLD HALL. 

is a sculptured stone let into the wall, measuring about 
2 ft. 6 in. by 2 ft. 3 in. (see sketch), inscribed with the 
design of three castles (two and one), similar to the arms 
of Newcastle-on-Tyne, with a drawing compass between 
the castles, the date 1689, and the initials C. M. P. It is 
not known whether the device is intended to be armorial, 
for they are not upon a shield nor is the compass charged 
upon a chevron as in the arms of the Freemasons. The 
records of Herald's College show a disclaimer by Dug- 
dale, of a claim by Petty of Skipton-in-Craven, to bear 
the arms of Pettit in Cornwall, from whom they failed 
prove descent, but those arms were quite dissimilar. 

The great Sir William Petty, M.D., who was born at 
Romsey, in Hants, 1623, the son of a clothier, and who 
as secretary to Cromwell, made a minute survey of all 
the forfeited and Crown lands of Ireland, and acquired a 
large fortune by the percentage allowed him, had a grant 
of arms consisting of a compass needle pointing to the 
Polar star, and those arms are still born by the Marquis 
of Lansdowne who is his lineal descendant. Pepys in his 
diary (July, 1663), quotes letters from Sir William Petty : 

Wherein he says that his vessel which he hath built upon two keeles, 
a modell whereof, built for the King, he shewed me, hath this month 
won a wager of £50 in sailing between Dublin and Holyhead, with the 
pacquett-boat, the best ship or vessel the King hath there ; and he 
offers to lay with any vessel in the world. 

The arms which he obtained were doubtless in testimony 
of his skill as a nautical inventor, and the drawing compass 
displayed in the sculpture at " Petty Hall," may possibly 
have been symbolical of distinction as a land surveyor. 

In later days Petty Hall was acquired by a branch of 
the Garnett family, and became the residence of William 
Garnett, born at Wickerslack in the parish of Crosby 
Ravensworth, 1715, whose descent may be traced back 







in the registers to Anthony Garnett who married Elizabeth 
Parkies, 15th June, 1601. The initials of this William 
Garnett are inscribed on a stone over one of the doors in 
the right hand, or barn end of the house. 

W.G., 1740. 

His brother Thomas Garnett was the last of the race at 
Wickerslack, born 1721, and died 1803. There is a 
tradition that the family were of extraordinary stature, 
and a very tall stick called the Garnett-staff, was long 
preserved in the parish. Amongst the representatives of 
the family still living, may be mentioned the well known 
Mr. John Garnett, of Windermere, who claims to be the 
oldest post-master in the kingdom. 

Another branch of the Garnetts, who were of Blaster- 
field, not far from Wickerslack in the parish of Crosby 
Ravensworth, became the founders of the family at Eggles- 
cliffe, Durham, whose right to the ancient arms of 
Garnett of Westmorland — Azure three gryphon's heads 
erased or, was recognized by the Heralds at their visita- 

Mr. John Garnett Holme, great grandson of William 
Garnett of Petty Hall, sold the estate to the late Thomas 
Gibson, Esq. M.D., of Orton, the author of " Legends 
and Historical Notes on places in the East and West wards, 
Westmorland," but he makes no allusion therein to this 
particular property, which is now possessed by his son 
Mr. Thomas Holme Gibson, of Kirkby Stephen, by whom 
I am informed that his father, the late owner, had a small 
window re-opened which had been blocked on account of 
the window tax ; also that a quern was found on the place 
many years ago, but through carelessness of the tenant 
had been lost ; a portion was afterwards found again, being 
turned out of some portion of the dairy wall whilst under 
restoration. The land when bought by Dr. Gibson was 


304 0RT0N OLD HALL. 

in parts very swampy, and a portion known as the " Low- 
moor " was drained by him at considerable cost, when all 
sorts of curious scraps of iron, circular horse shoes, &c, 
were found in the swamp. 

Having understood that some of the old glass remained 
in the windows of an upper chamber, I have examined 
what there is still to be seen of the old tracery, but can 
find no sign of stained glass there. 

The extreme thickness of the outer wall, and the solid 
stone steps of the winding stair, by which the upper 
chambers are reached deserve attention, also does the 
primitive method of barring the outer door, by a stout 
oak bar pulled out from a socket in the thickness of the 
wall, into which it is pushed back when not in use. 

Note by THE Editor. — The following is a suggestion by our Secretary, Mr. 
T. Wilson, which seems to solve the difficulty. 

" The arms of the Freemasons prior to 1S13 were a pair of compasses at an 
angle of 450 on a chevron between 3 towers 2 and i.» These arms have some- 
times been assumed by Freemasons, e.g. Thomas Gardner, Mayor of Lancaster, 
1710, adopted the same, and it looks as if the owner of Petty Hall, not having 
any family arms, used the arms of the craft. The arms are still used by Free- 
masons but are now impaled with another shield." 

Papworth's Ordinary, p. 506, gives " Sa. on a chev. betw. three towers arg. a 
pair of compasses extended as the first " as the arms of the Society of Free and 
Accepted Masons. 



Thursday and Friday, July 3rd and 4th, 1S90. 

THE first meeting for 1890 of the Cumberland and Westmorland 
Antiquarian and Archaeological Society was held in North 
Westmorland, on Thursday and Friday, July 3rd and 4th. Despite 
the fact that it was the 22nd annual meeting, fresh ground was ex- 
plored on Thursday between Tebay and Appleby, a district parti- 
cularly rich in antiquarian research. The local arrangements were 
made by Chancellor Ferguson, F.S.A., Major Arnison, and Canon 
Mathews. The President, Chancellor Ferguson, F.S.A., was unable 
to be with the party on the first day, having to attend the Assizes at 
Carlisle, but joined the members of the Society at Appleby in the 

The meet on Thursday was at Tebay, a convenient centre for all 
parts of the district. A start was made shortly after noon amid a 
lively downpour of rain, which brought umbrellas and mackintoshes 
into service, and doubtless the villagers, who turned out in great 
numbers, felt somewhat for the staid and anything but happy-looking 
antiquaries. At the north end of the village of Tebay a halt was 
made, and the company proceeded along a lane, through a farmyard 
and a field, to Castle How, an Anglo-Saxon " burh," or centre of the 
estate of some great Saxon lord. There are a series of similar 
mounds in the valley of the Lune, at Sedbergh, Kirkby Lonsdale, 
Black Burton, Halton, and other places. The one at Castle How 
appeared to have had half of it washed away by a flood. The Brand- 
ling stone should have been visited next, but owing to its position 
in a hay field, this item had to be omitted. 

Carriages were re-mounted, and, amid the pelting rain, the horses 
bowled along the somewhat indifferently-kept road towards Orton. 
Colonel Burn, of Orton Hall, whose grandfather, Dr. Burn was the 
historian of the county, invited the party to make a passing call at 
his residence, and those who accepted it received a most hearty 
welcome, and were well repaid for the visit. The grounds looked 
exceedingly charming, even amid the heavy downpour of rain, and 
the house is a perfect study for the antiquary and lover of the beauti- 
ful. The party assembled in one of the large rooms, where the 
family paintings hung. The one of Dr. Burn, from the brush of 



Romney, was of course the most interesting, and occupied a promi- 
nent place. There is a copy of the painting at Lovvther Castle by 
Jacob Thompson, and a small one at the vicarage, by Ward. 
Colonel Burn also produced a drawing of the old vicarage, with 
ground plan, shewing the favourite rooms of the historian. Dr. 
Taylor said 

The parish of Orton must be especially interesting to the members of that society, 
as it was the residence and sphere of labour of the celebrated Dr. Burn, who was 
not only known for his legal writings, which have been introduced into modern 
standard works, but as the historian of Westmorland and Cumberland. Dr. Burn 
was born in 1709, held the office of vicar of Orton for 49 years, and died there in 
17S5. He filled the honourable office of Chancellor of the Diocese, which the 
President of the Society and historian of Cumberland held at the present time* 
Dr. Burn obtained a great deal of local matter, was most assiduous in 
preparing his manuscripts and in conjunction with Joseph Nicolson, nephew of 
Dr. William Nicolson, Bishop of Carlisle, published a history of the two 
counties in 1777. His son, Mr. John Burn, was a member of the bar, and ex- 
tended and edited his father's legal writings. It was a great gratification that 
they should be welcomed there by a descendant of Dr. Burn, and they all felt 
honoured by the invitation Colonel Burn had extended to them. 

The Colonel returned his thanks, expressing a wish that the company 
had been treated with a little more sunshine. The next move was 
to the ancient parish church, where Mr. J. Holme Nicholson read 
an interesting paper on the registers, which is printed, ante. p. 250. 

Petty Hall was then visited, the party congregating in the spacious 
hall, now used as a kitchen; here Mr. F. B. Garnett, C.B., read a 
paper, which is also printed, ante p. 300. Dr. Taylor, said that the 
house was a very good example of an Elizabethan house, very much 
as it was probably at the end of the 16th century. The date of the 
building, 1604, was stated over the door; the door itself was very 
ancient, probably original; at anyrate the ironwork was. He would 
ask the company to observe the hasp, which was an old-fashioned 
lifting-up sneck. There was also an old draw-bar behind the door 
which was used to the present day ; the speaker also explained the 
rooms of the house, its large fire-places, and the " mell doors," be- 
tween the front and back doors. 

The company after inspecting the hall, repaired to the Fleece Inn, 
where luncheon was provided. Soon the bugle sounded, seats were 
a"-ain taken, and the drive continued to Applely, the following places 
being visited on the route:— The Stone Circle at Raisbeck, Sunbegin, 
earthworks at Little Asby, Great Asby Hall, Caves, and Rectory. 

The annual meeting was held at the King's Head Hotel, Appleby, 
in the evening. The corporation regalia, and plate were displayed 



in the room, and were frequently referred to in terms of admiration. 
The Worshipful Chancellor Ferguson presided over a large assem- 
blage. The following officers were elected for the year : — 

Patrons: — -The Right Hon. The Lord Muncaster, M.P., Lord 
Lieutenant of Cumberland ; The Right Hon. The Lord Hothfield, 
Lord Lieutenant of Westmorland ; The Right Rev. The Lord Bishop 
of Carlisle. 

President and Editor : — The Worshipful Chancellor Ferguson, 
M.A., LL.M., F.S.A. 

Vice-Presidents: — James Atkinson, Esq., E. B. W. Baime, Esq., 
The Bishop of Barrow-in-Furness; The Earl of Bective, M.P. ; 
W. Browne, Esq., James Cropper, Esq., The Dean of Carlisle, H. F. 
Curwen, Esq., Robert Ferguson, Esq., F.S.A., The Earl of Carlisle, 
W. Jackson, Esq., F.S.A., G. J. Johnson, Esq., Hon. W. Lowther, 
M.P., H. P. Senhouse, Esq., M. W. Taylor, M.D., F.S.A. 

Elected Members of Council: — W. B. Arnison, Esq.. Penrith; 
Rev. E. Bower, Carlisle; Rev. W. S. Calverley, F.S.A., Aspatria ; 
J. F. Crosthwaite, Esq., F.S.A., Keswick; H. Swainson Cowper, Esq., 
F.S.A., Hawkshead ; C. J. Ferguson, Esq., F.S.A., Carlisle ; T. F. 
I'Anson, Esq., M.D., Whitehaven ; Rev. Thomas Lees, F.S.A., 
Wreay ; Rev Canon Mathews, Appleby ; Alfred Peile, Esq. Work- 
ington ; Rev. H. Whitehead, Newton Reigny : Robert J. Whitwell, 
Esq., Kendal. 

Auditors. — James G. Gandy, Esq., Heaves; Frank Wilson, Esq. 

Treasurer : — W. D. Crewdson, Esq., Helme Lodge. 

Secretary : — Mr. T. Wilson, Aynam Lodge, Kendal. 

The following new members were elected : — Mr. Christopher Fairer, 
Fairbank, Penrith; Rev. F. J. McCormick, F.S.A., Scot., St. James', 
Whitehaven; Mr. Robert Williamson, 65, Crosby St., Maryport ; 
Mr. William Townley, Hard Crag, Grange-over-Sands ; Rev. G. B. 
Armes, The Vicarage, Cleator; Rev. R. W. Metcalf, Ravenstone- 
dale ; Miss Elizabeth Noble, Beckfoot, Penrith; Mr. F. Haverfield, 
Lancing Coll., Shoreham ; Mr. John Powley, Langwathby Penrith ; 
Mr. Robert Graham, The Luham, Penrith ; Rev. A. A. Williams, 
the Vicarage, Colton ; Mr. John Fothergill, Brownber, Ravenstone- 
dale ; Mr. George Frederic Brown, 28, Portland Square, Carlisle; 
Mr. William Carrick, Oak Bank, Scotby, Carlisle ; Mr. Reginald Dykes 
Marshall, Castlerigg Manor, Keswick; Mr. James Park, Southgate, 
Ulverston ; Mr. C. Telford Smith, Rothay Bank, Ambleside; Mr. J. 
S. Fulton, Appleby; Mr. William Hewitson, Town Clerk, Appleby; 
Mr. C. R. Rivington, F.R.G.S., Castle Bank, Appleby. 



It was agreed that the next meeting should be held at Lancaster, 
in September, the date being left to the discretion of a committee 
appointed to make the arrangements. Owing to the absence of the 
treasurer no formal balance sheet was presented, but the president 
said that there was a balance in hand of £189, which was an im- 
provement, the year having been been begun with £160. The 
Society had been rather extravagant of late years, but had managed 
to keep the balance well up. 

The following papers were communicated to the Society : — Appleby 
Charters, Mr. Hewitson; Some Manorial Halls near Appleby, M. W. 
Taylor, M.D., F. S.A. ; The Hudlestones of Hutton John, W. Jackson, 
F.S.A. ; The Episcopal Seals of Carlisle, Mrs. Ware ; The Baronies 
of Cumberland, The President ; Local Heraldry, The President ; The 
Bears at Dacre, The President ; Mounds at Asby, Rev. Canon 
Mathews; The Misereres in Carlisle Cathedral, Miss R. and Miss 
K. Henderson ; The Parish Registers at Orton, J. Holme Nicholson, 
M.A. ; Roman Roads in Westmorland, Rev. Canon Mathews ; The 
Dalston Transcripts of 1589-1590, Rev. J. Wilson ; The Carlisle 
Medals of 1745, Mr. E. F. Bell; Knock and Dufton Pikes, J. G. 
Goodchild, F.G.S. ; A Book of Accounts of the Parish of Stanwix, 
Rev. R. J. Wood ; Pre-Norman Cross Shafts at Bromfield and Work- 
ington, and the Cross at Rockliff, Rev. W. S. Calverley, F.S.A. ; The 
Appleby Chained Books, C. R. Rivington ; A Note on Sandford's 
Cumberland, by Geo. Watson. 

On Friday morning the elements were more promising than on 
the previous evening ; still some showers were evidently expected 
and everybody took precautions accordingly. Nine or ten vehicles 
were needed to accommodate the augmented party, and at a quarter 
to ten the cavalcade drove away through Colby to Bewley Castle. 
The President pointed out the principal features of the ruins and its 
history. Bolton Church was the next stopping place; here the 
vicar, the Rev. P. Pinnington, pointed out various interesting objects 
and the President read some notes on the building. Crossing over 
the Eden a stoppage was made to view Redlands Camp, and the 
Roman Road, explanatory observations being supplied by the Presi- 
dent, Canon Mathews, and others. The President's remarks will be 
printed on a separate paper. The sites of the camps at Redlands 
and Kirkby Thore were marked by red and white flags. A paper 
was read by the Rev. J. Heelis, rector, on Kirkby Thore Church and 
its history, during the stay of the visitors in that building. Kirkby 
Thore Hall was next visited, where Dr. Taylor read a paper. Lunch 
was provided at the Bridge End Hotel, after which the drive was 
resumed to Newbiggin Hall, Mr. Crackenthorpe, Q.C., having given 



facilities for visiting one of the most interesting buildings in the 
country. Time pressed, and the period allotted was far too short to 
be satisfactory. 

The route was resumed, and during the drive Canon Mathews 
indicated the course of the Roman Road, known as the Maiden Way, 
running over the fells. Some time was spent at Howgill Castle, 
where the great size and strength of the walls, and other features of 
the structure were pointed out. Rain began to fall heavily as soon 
as the castle was left, and continued with but a short interval till the 
arrival at Appleby. A halt was made at Longmarton, and while the 
gentlemen were examining the church, the ladies had tea at the 
vicarage. Appleby was reached about five o'clock, thus concluding 
a two days' tour which had been greatly enjoyed, notwithstanding 
the awful weather. 

Thursday and Friday, September 18th and 19th, 1890. 

The members of the Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian 
and Archaeological Society held their second meeting for the year 
at Lancaster, on Thursday and Friday, September 18th and 19th. 
A two days excursion was arranged, with a view of visiting and in- 
specting several places of interest in the locality. The committee 
who made the local arrangements were the President of the Society 
(Chancellor Ferguson, F.S.A.), Carlisle; Mr. W. O. Roper, Deputy 
Town Clerk of Lancaster; and the Rev. W. B. Grenside, vicar of 

The members and their friends assembled at the King's Arms 
Hotel, Lancaster, about one o'clock in the afternoon, where time 
was allowed for refreshments. At a quarter to two o'clock, they 
proceeded to visit the ancient parish church of St. Mary's, the 
details of which were most graphically described by Mr. W. O. 
Roper. From the church the party proceeded to the castle, accom- 
panied by Mr. W. O. Roper and Mr. E. B. Dawson. The various 
features of the historic pile were described by these gentlemen, the 
famous gateway tower, John O'Gaunt's chair, the Well tower, the 
dungeons in which many noted prisoners were once confined, claiming 
particular attention, as did also a Roman altar with a disputed in- 
scription upon it. Later on in the afternoon the party drove to 
Heysham by way of the marshes. On arriving at the churchyard, 
they were received by the Rev. C. T. Royds, the rector, who con- 
ducted them through the ancient church, and pointed out the various 
objects of interest. The Rev. T. Lees read a paper called " An 
attempt to interpret the sculpture on certain stones in the church- 


yard of Heysham"; this was illustrated by rubbings, from the 
collection of the Rev. W. S. Calverley, F.S.A. Mr. W. O. Roper 
described the interior of Heysham Church ; and at the close of the 
inspection the Rev. C. T. Royds hospitably entertained the visitors 
with afternoon tea at Heysham Old Hall. 

In the course of the evening the members and a number of local 
gentlemen dined together at the King's Arms Hotel, the President 
occupying the chair. 

A formal meeting took place after dinner, when the following reso- 
lutions were passed : — The President reported that this Society had 
joined the " Societies in union " with the Society of Antiquaries of 
London : it was resolved that an annual subscription (similar to that 
paid by other Societies), should be contributed towards the expenses 
the Union. It was also resolved that steps should be taken to make 
an archaeological map of Cumberland and Westmorland, and Lan- 
cashire north of the Sands, according to instructions issued by the 
Society of Antiquaries of London. 

The President called attention to the state of the obelisk at Bew- 
castle, stating that it had been much injured in an attempt made by 
a society from outside to take a cast from it : doubts had also arisen 
as to its stability. Resolved unanimously that steps be taken under 
proper advice to place the obelisk in a safe condition, and that the 
President, Rev. W. S. Calverley, and Mr. C. J. Ferguson, be appointed 
a sub-committee to get it done." ;; 

The President reported that C. W. Dymond, F.S.A., had offered 
to make plans of the earthworks at Lowther, Little Asby, and High 
House, Hugill, on condition that his expenses be paid. Resolved that 
his offer be accepted. 

The following new members were elected : — Mr. M. Mackey, 8, 
Milton Street, Newcastle-on-Tyne ; Mr. John Garnett, Windermere ; 
Mr. J. G. Elliott, Carlisle Patriot, Carlisle; Mrs. Hartley, Holmgarth, 
Morecambe ; Mr. E. H. Whinfield, The Hollin, Gipsy Road, West- 
Norwood, S.E. ; Mr. John Henry Johnson, The Mountains, Tunbridge 
Rev. T. M. Remington, Aynsome, Cartmel ; Mr. Ernest Newton 
Deakin, Park House, Cheadle. 

The following papers were communicated to the Society : — Some 
illustrations of Home Life in Lonsdale north of the Sands, in the 
17th and iSth centuries, John Fell, of Dane Ghyll ; The Reeans of 
High Furness, by Rev. T. Ellwood ; the Percy connection with 

*This has now (Oct. 25th, 1S90) been done, and a report on the subject will 
appear in the Society's Transactions. 



Cumberland, G. T. Clark, F.S.A. ; Local Heraldry (Cumberland), 
Miss Kuper; Local Fonts, Rev. J. Wilson. 

The second day of the meeting was devoted to an excursion up the 
valley of the Lune. Leaving the town at a quarter to ten o'clock on 
Friday morning the party proceeded in carriages to the village of 
Halton on the north bank of the Lune, and an inspection of the 
antiquities in the church and churchyard was made : they were de- 
scribed by Mr. W. O. Roper, and by the Rev. W. S. Calverley, 
F.S.A. Due attention was given to the'jfamous cross, and a strong 
wish expressed that the disjecta membra might be put together, and 
the cross placed in shelter in the church. The moated mound or 
" burh " near the church was also visited. Passing over Halton 
Moor, from which delightful views were obtained of surrounding 
sceneiy, Gressingham was next reached, and here they were met by 
the Rev. W. B. Grenside, vicar of Melling, who pointed out the 
peculiarities of an ancient doorway in the church. A brief halt 
was made at another " burh " near Lune Bridge, and in due course 
the party, having crossed the Lune, arrived at Melling, where Mr. 
Grenside described the church, and Chancellor Ferguson standing at 
the foot of the "burh" adjoining the church, described and ex- 
plained these " moated mounds," of which three were visited during 
the day; he mentioned that there were several of a similar character 
to be seen in Westmorland. Whilst here, Mr. Grenside hospitably 
entertained the visitors to light refreshments at the vicarage, after 
which they drove to Hornby, where the parish church was inspected 
and a distant view had of the castle, a full description of the main 
features of each structure being given by Mr. Grenside. After lunch 
at the Castle Inn, the party proceeded to the quaint little village 
of Claughton, where they were met by the Rev. E. K. Green, the 
vicar. Attention was specially directed to a church bell bearing date 
1286, and said to be the oldest dated bell in England. Claughton 
Old Hall was next inspected, Brookhouse and Caton being also 
visited. After tea at the Victoria Institute, the party proceeded 
through the beautiful scenery of the Crook of Lune, along the 
south bank of the river, and arrived back at Lancaster about 
half-past five, after a most delightful drive. The weather was fine 
until four o'clock, when one or two slight showers fell. 

The President desires on behalf of the Society to put on record 
their high appreciation of the excellent arrangements made for their 
convenience by Messrs. W. O. Roper, E. B. Dawson, and the Rev, 
W. B. Grenside. 


Art. XXIX. The Roman Camp on Kreiginthorpe (Crackcn- 
thorpe) Common, near Kirkbythore.* By The President. 
Read at the Camp, July ^ih, 1S90. 

A PLAN of this remarkable camp is reproduced from 
General Roy's magnificent work " The Military 
Antiquities of the Romans in Britain," plate xvii. It 
was re-surveyed by General Roy in 1769 (Ibid p. 73), 
and a comparison, between its condition when surveyed, 
and its condition at present will show the devastation 
wrought among antiquities of this class by the enclosure 
of the commons, and the cultivation consequent thereon. 
The camp is now nearly ploughed out and obliterated. 

General Roy includes in one class the great temporary 
camps at Kreiginthorpe (Crackenthorpe), Ray-cross t and 
Birrenswark. In their dimensions, the multiplicity of 
their gates and other principal points, they agree so much 
that it is evident they are all three the work of one and 
the same legion. As in all their parts they differ from 
the camps assigned to Agricola, they must therefore be- 
long to the sixth legion, which did not arrive in Britain 
until the time of Hadrian. By that time most of Agri- 
cola's conquests in Scotland had been lost, and Roy 
suggests that these three camps mark the halting places 
of there-conquering expedition, as the sixth legion marched 
from York. 

General Roy says of this camp 

The first of these is situated on Kreiginthorpe common between 
Kirkbythore and Appleby, near a place called Pows-House on the 
west side of the Roman Way. J It is a square of about three hundred 
yards, with just such another intrenchment, with regard to profile, 

* Now known as Redlands Camp. 

f For Ray cross, see these Transactions vol. v. pp. O9-75. 

X The railway now runs on the site of the Roman Way, between the camp and 
Pows-House, which time or the Ordnance Surveyors have improved into Powis 


"^ Nil. .:: 



as those at Birrenswark. In the east side, or that nearest the Roman 
Way, there are no fewer than four gates, two are visible in what 
remains of the south side, two in the west, and only one in that to- 
wards the north. They have, to appearances, all been covered with 
traverses : one half of that before the north gate is levelled by the 
present turnpike road, which these enter, and crosses the camp 
obliquely * * * * * These camps (i.e. Kreginthorpe and Ray Cross) 
being the same in dimensions and other principal points, with the 
two united at Birrenswark * which seem only to have been separated 
that the Romans might be better able to secure possession of that 
remarkable hill, and all differing from those which we have shown to 
be Agricola's, it is natural to conclude not only that they were 
occupied by the very same legion, but that this was probably the 
sixth, whose stated quarters were at York. 

Roy's Military Antiquities, pp. 73-74. 

* Kreiginthorpe and Ray Cross camps are each 300 yards by 300 yards : one of 
those at Birrenswark is 300 by 200, and the other 300 by 100. 



Art. XXX. Kirkby Thore Church. By the Rev. John 
Heelis, M.A., Rector. s Kvulaa)- 

Read at Kirkby Thore, July 4th 1890.^ 

BISHOP Irton in i28oTUlIlpMamed that' tKereTTad been 
no service in the church of Kirkby Thore for eight 
years past, owing to a papal interdict. Doubtless there 
was a church here for some generations before that date. 
But I have no access to documentary evidence bearing on 
its early history. Probably Norman builders laid the stones 
of the inside of the lower stage of the tower, at a period 
not later than the 12th century, but whether in this and 
other instances the probability is of such a degree as to 
warrant the conclusion, I must leave to the decision of 

The church of Kirkby Thore is dedicated to St. Michael. 
It consists of western tower, south porch, nave, north 
aisle and chancel. Its external length is about ninety-three 
feet. The mantle of ivy on its outer walls and the plaster 
moulding and other ornaments imitating stonework in the 
interior, partly baffle one's attempts to read its history 
from its walls : this, however, is the case with portions 
only of the building. 

To start then with the tower; it is about 44 feet high 
and 23 feet broad at the base, it has an embattled parapet, 
on the south face of which are sculptured the Wharton 
arms. There are pinnacles at the four corners. Subsequent 
apparently to the completion of the parapet, a bell cote 
for two bells was placed on the east side, occupying the 
space of two embrasures and the intervening portion of 
ridge. The marks worn on the stone by the swinging of 
the bells, show that bells were hung in this bell cote and 
used ; also that they were of different sizes, the larger one 



having been placed in the northern receptacle. At present 
a large pre-reformation bell, hanging in the belfry below, 
is used. There is a tradition that this was brought from 
Shap Abbey, by Richard Evenwode the last abbot, who 
was also rector of Kirkby Thore, and who had all but 
succeeded in appropriating this benefice to his abbey, on 
the very eve of its dissolution. The bell seems to have 
suffered from fire, as several letters of what appears, at 
first sight, to have been the first word of the inscription 
have apparently been melted off and a piece is broken off 
from the rim.* The inscription, so far as it is legible, 
runs thus : — 

%i.S re Ni I he Tas Unus Devs Meserere Nobis. 

The capital letters are surmounted by crowns, and there 
are two crowns over the the symbol the. The chief diffi- 
culty lies in supplying the letters wanting, and in ex- 
plaining Ni and Tas: Dr. Hooppell, rector of Byers Green, 
Durham, (who saw the bell and to whose kind assistance 
I am generally much indebted), ingeniously conjectured 
that the first word was " ' Succurre." With that hypothesis 
we got an intelligible meaning out of the inscription, but 
were not altogether satisfied. Afterwards Dr. Raven, 
author of the Church Bells of Cambridgeshire, and of 
Suffolk (to whom Dr. Hooppell sent a copy of the in- 
scription, when deciphered by him) put us on the right 
track. He suggested that Ni and Tas were syllables of 
Trenitas and that this latter word had been broken up and 
its syllables separated from each other as above, the 
symbol I he being inserted between two of them. Naturally 
the authority of Dr. Raven had great weight. Dr. Hoop- 
pell wrote to me saying that he now thought that the 

*Nicolson and Burn_(History of Westmorland 1 374), mentions the great bell 
at Kirkby Thore as having been " burst long ago." 



inscription might have begun with the word Sancta if 
there was any evidence of a capital letter before re. On 
minute examination of the first part of the inscription 
again under a strong light, I found undoubted evidence of 
this, so that the conjecture " Succurre " may be laid aside, 
and, thanks to the joint contributions of Dr. Hooppell and 
Dr. Raven to its elucidation, I confidently give the in- 
scription as follows : — 

>J| Sea Tre Ni I he Tas Unus Devs Meserere Nobis.* 

To me this seems an eminently satisfactory result, and I 
must say I am glad that our old prereformation bell sounds 
an invocation in which we can all join, and I would fain 
believe with Dr. Hooppell that the quaint conceit of 
breaking the word Trenitas into three syllables and inser- 
ting the name of the Lord Jesus in the midst was to express 
the scriptural declaration that "In him dwelleth all the 
fulness of the Godhead bodily". t 

The lettering is of a very tasteful character — probably of 
the thirteenth century. Undoubtedly the Kirkby Thore 
bell is one of the most interesting in the north of England. 

The tower seems to have extended the full breadth of 
the original nave ; it is very nearly the full breadth of the 
present nave, which appears to be somewhat wider than 
the original one. The piers and imposts of the original 
Norman tower arch remain ; they are at least 12 feet 
apart, a great width for a Norman tower arch in a com- 
paratively small church. But the width of the tower 
itself, in proportion to the rest of the church is remarkable. 
Upon the Norman piers and imposts stands a fourteenth 

*The misspelling of " Trenitas and Meserere " is an illustration of the estab- 
lished fact that mediaeval bell founders constantly made blunders in their 

f The intercalation of the name of the Lord Jesus with the invocation to the 
Blessed Trinity reminds one, also, of the mediaeval custom of intercalating- one 
psalm, or canticle, with another, as described in Nealc's "Commentary on the 
Psalms," vol. i, pp. 3S, 39. 



century arch, the whole forming a curious combination. 
The tower appears to have been re-faced (perhaps also 
widened and heightened) to have had buttresses built to 
it, and a window in the prevailing style inserted in its west 
side, in the 14th century. 

Previously to this there was probably a west door in the 
tower, beneath where the window is now. Beneath the 
window, inside the church, there is a large recess at the 
present time ; this would hardly be excavated in a wall 
fully four and a half feet thick, when the window was put in. 
More probably we have here the remains of a Norman door- 
way ; possibly most of the mouldings &c. of the door are 
still in the wall, in situ, covered by the facing stones without 
and by the masonry and plaster within. No Norman mould- 
ings or fragments of Norman sculptured work appear in any 
part of the church or its precincts at the present day, and 
the present south door is a very plain one, dating ap- 
parently from the fourteenth century. The reason why 
the arms of Wharton are on the parapet of the tower may 
be that one of that family, as lord of the manor of Kirkby 
Thore, defrayed the whole or principal part of the cost 
of some new work. The inner walls of the lower part of 
the tower are built, for the most part, of the same sort of 
hard light coloured freestone of which the lower part of 
the chancel walls is built. The old part of the interior of 
the tower probably only extends to the height of the first 

In the second stage of the tower there was a rectangular 
opening (now built up) looking into the nave of the church. 
The floor above the second stage was at one time at a 
lower elevation than it is now. The holes in the walls 
for the beam ends east and west are very noticeable. 

Turning now to the chancel, the walls appear to have 
been built not later than the early part of the thirteenth 
century ; a plinth runs round the lower part of the walls 
near the ground. The stone used in the wall is of a 



lighter colour than that used in the fourteenth century 
work already described. The east end would have for- 
merly a triplet of three narrow lancets, of which evident 
traces still remain in the external wall. 

The present window is a decorated one of recent 
construction*, but is said to be an exact copy of an ancient 
one which immediately preceded it ; if so, the triplet was 
no doubt replaced by a decorated window in the fourteenth 
century ; there is another decorated window in the chancel 
on the south side, of a fine and bold design, and, one 
would say, of a comparatively early date in the fourteenth 
century — not later, for instance, than A.D. 1330. 

The piscina in the chancel is perfect and appears of 
similar date. A priest's door, inserted on the north side, 
probably dates from the same period ; another window by 
the priest's door, with cusped tracery beneath a square 
head, is probably of some few years later date. 

The history of the nave appears somewhat intricate, 
the north and south walls appear to have been rebuilt at 
a little greater distance from each other than the walls of 
the nave originally were, soon after the present chancel 
walls were built. It will be observed that the plinth of the 
chancel walls runs on behind the present nave walls, both 
on the north and south sides of the church ; but yet these 
new nave walls were built early enough to be furnished with 
lancet windows a considerable height above the floor of 
the church ; one of these still remains close up against the 
tower, on the south side. It will be observed that the 
fourteenth century buttress on the south side of the tower 
has been built up against the quoins which form the 
western jamb of the window. When the fourteenth cen- 
tury window was inserted in the south side of the chancel, 
two windows appear to have been inserted in the south 

* Renewed in 1S50-1 when extensive repairs were executed and tbe church re- 
seated. The Rev. C. H. Barham was rector at the time. 



wall of the nave. Some years after this, an arcade of two 
arches was inserted in the north wall, and an aisle 
thrown out on that side of the church ; windows similar to 
those on the south side were inserted. There is a dif- 
ference, however, in the masonry surrounding the windows 
on the south side of the church, and at the west end, from 
the masonry surrounding the windows on the north side 
of the church, and at the east end of the aisle, on the 
inside, which seems to indicate an interval of some years, 
as hinted already, between the execution of the two series 
of works. The former window openings are " shouldered " 
and as a rule, more deeply splayed at the sides and 
bottom, and there are minor differences besides. 

At some subsequent period the walls of the nave and 
chancel have been raised, and a continuous roof thrown 
over all — nave, chancel, and aisle. Between the two 
arches of the arcade, is a very characteristic clustered 
shaft of four pillars, each with a broad fillet down the 
face. The terminating piers of the arcade consist of a 
single pillar, with a similar broad fillet down the face. 
On the outside of the aisle near the tower is a small 
ogee-headed lancet window, now built up ; there appear to 
be also traces of a north door to the east of the said lancet 

The present porch seems to have been erected when the 
walls of the nave and chancel were raised to receive a con- 
tinuous roof. At the apex, over the entrance, are the 
greatly weathered remains of a cross, which seems cer- 
tainly not to have been made for the place it now occupies, 
but which was probably displaced by the new roof from 
the east end of the chancel. 

In the south wall of the porch, just inside the entrance, 
is a curious cavity in the wall ; possibly it once pierced 
the wall right through and enabled a beadle or verger to 
keep an eye on the entrance to the churchyard, as he sat in 
the porch during divine service. The font, bearing the arms 




of Machell, was completed May 8th, 1688, as the register 
records, and it, along with the pulpit, communion table 
and rails of carved black oak, was the gift of " the father 
of all Westmorland and Cumberland antiquaries " the 
Rev. Thomas Machell, who held this rectory from 1677 
to 1698. He was buried in the south side of the chancel. « 
The pulpit bears the date 1631, which seems to indicate 1 
that Machell was a collector of pre-existing carved oak, 
rather than a designer of new work of the kind. Outside 


rather than a designer of new work of the kind. Outside 
the rail surmounting the communion balusters runs an 
inscription which in its present position reads thus : — 


The perpendicular lines in the above indicate the door 
space in the rails ; the letter s preceding AC was evidently 
cut by mistake, as it was afterwards intentionally ob- 
literated ; there are three other letters which were similarly 
cut at first in mistake, and now show signs of oblitera- 
tion they occur at the end of the name machell. Dr. 
Hooppell writes to me respecting this inscription : — " I am 
cidedly of opinion that this inscription originally faced 
the Holy table, not the congregation in the church as it 
does now. I think that Machell wished that his successors 
might be stimulated by his example, rather than that he 
intended to proclaim to all the world what he had done 
to adorn God's house at Kirkby Thore. Afterwards, either 
to prevent the intrusion of the curious within the sanctuary, 
or for some other reason, the rails were turned : this 
necessarily caused a dislocation of the inscription ; the last 
part became the first and the first the last ; the middle 
part remaining in its proper place. Restoring the order, 
in accordance with this hypothesis, and expanding the 



abbreviations, the whole will read as follows : — 


It may be observed that in the University of Oxford /. 
there is, or at least used to be, a distinction between Qfc 
"magistri regentes et non-regentes." 

The registers of the church (for the preservation of which 
we owe much to Machell), commence with the year 1593, 
and present many features of interest ; but I need say no 
more about them except that they will be found carefully 
described by the Rev. R. Bower, in Vol. IV of these Tran- 

The church plate consists of one bell-shaped chalice of 
silver with paten cover, marked like the Milburn plate 
with the initials R. W., and with the London date letter 
for 1633-4 : under the foot is " Kirkby Thure " (sic) 
the church also possesses one pewter flagon with thumb- 
piece and a paten of pewter now used as an alms dish. 

On the south wall of the chancel are the arms of the 
patron ; on the north wall the arms of Machell ; on the 
east wall Machell impaled with Wharton, and again 
Wharton impaled with another which I do not recognize. t 
At the east end of the aisle are the arms of Warcop of 
which family were several former rectors. 

On the south wall of the chancel is a small brass X in 
memory of Rev. Carleton Atkinson, M.A., rector, 1722- 

* In confirmation of this order of the words I have found, since writing the 
above, in Bp. Nicolson's account of the diocese A.D. 1703, p. 28, " Upon the rails 
in the Quire is this inscription, Ecclesise de Kirkby Thore &c." Bishop Nicolson 
gives sac without noticing the obliteration of the letter s which caught the eye 
of Dr. Hooppell, as he was engaged in solving the puzzle of the inscription as it 

fit resembles the arms of a younger branch of the Kirkby family : but the 
tinctures seem incorrect, 

J Found by Mr. Bower lying about in the chancel when the vestry was built, 
and heating apparatus put in, and then fixed in its present position. 



1762, and on the north wall a monumental brass, with a 
long latin inscription, probably composed by Machcll, in 
memory of John Dalston, Esq., of Acorn Bank, who died 
in 1692. Against the outer wall of the east end of the 
church is a stone recording the death of Thomas Bowser 
in 1733 ; he was the father of " Jack Bowser of Kirkby 
Thore ", whom the rebels in 1745 compelled to show them 
the way through the district, and grandfather of General 
Bowser, a distinguished Indian officer.* 

In examining the masonry of the church, one naturally 
looks for stones bearing marks of Roman tooling or other 
indications of having once formed parts of Roman edifices 
in the neighbouring fortified garrison town of that people. 
Few or no examples, however, can be detected unless the 
" luis " holes in the stones in the north wall near the 
tower, and in the lower courses of the west wall of the 
porch were made in Roman times. In the church yard 
is what looks like the socket of a cross of some size. 

* These Transactions, Vol. X, pp. 195, 225. 

f 323) 

Art. XXXI. The Bears at Dacre. By the Worshipful 
Chancellor Ferguson, F.S.A., President of the So- 

Read at Appleby, July 3rd, 1890. 

BISHOP Nicolson writing of Dacre in Cumberland, 
which place he visited on Feb. 26, 1704, says : — 

At each corner of the churchyard (which is indifferently well fenced) 
there stands a Bear and a Ragged Staff, cut in Stone : which looks 
like some of the Achievements of the Honourable Family which so 
long resided at the Neighbouring Castle. 

This is the earliest mention of these figures that I can 
find. The next is in Hutchinson's " Excursion to the 
Lakes," published 1776, he says, p. yy : — 

In the churchyard at Dacre are four remarkable monuments, being 
the effigies of bears in stone, about five feet high, sitting on their 
haunches, and clasping a rude pillar, or ragged staff, on which two 
of the figures have their heads rested; the other two carry on their 
backs the figures of a lynx, the one of which is in an attitude as if 
endeavouring to rid himself of the animal on his shoulders, with head 
twisted, and paws cast behind. Their position is such, as to form a 
square, two to the east of the church, and two to the west. There is 
no traditional account of the occasion on which they were placed 
there ; and it seems probable they are the remains of the decorations 
of the monastery to which the the Warwick family were benefactors. 
Plate Fig. 1. 

He gives a drawing of one of the figures. Nicolson 
and Burn in their history of the two counties, published 
in 1777, say :— 

At each corner of the churchyard, there stands a bear and ragged 
staff, cut in stone ; which bishop Nicolson says looks like some of 
the achievements of the honourable family that so long resided at 
the neighbouring castle : which has since been illustrated by a very 



worthy descendent of the family * ; who supposes they were cogni- 
zances taken by the family, on account of their claim to the heredi- 
tary forestership of Englewood forest. And the more so, as one sees 
these jagged branches over and over introduced into the chapel at 
Naward Castle, which is so rich in arms and cognizances, and where 
this jagged branch is in some places even thrown across the Dacre 
arms fess-wise. Ranulph de Meschines lord of Cumberland, granted 
this office of forester to Robert D'Estrivers lord of Burgh-over- 
Sands in fee. His arms were Argent; three bears sable. The 
heiress of D'Estrivers married Engain. The heiress of Engain married 
Morvill. The heiress of Morvill married Multon. And Dacre married 
the heiress of Multon, and by her had the same right as the others 
to the forestership of Englewood : which was so honourable, and so 
great command, that there is no wonder the family should wish by 
every means to set forth their claims to it : and (amongst others) by 
cognizances taken in allusion thereunto : especially as the crown 
about this time seems to have interfered with them in regard to this 
right. And surely nothing could be more naturally adapted to this 
idea, than this bear, which was the arms of their ancestor, the first 
grantee of the office. And the branch of a tree, which seems so very 
allusive to forests and woods, agrees with the same notion. And it is 
not improbable, but that this might be a badge used by Robert 
D'Estrivers himself; and that he chose the bears in his arms be- 
cause they were inhabitants of the forests. 

Hutchinson in his history of Cumberland 1794, vol. 1, 
p. 473, merely reiterates what he said in his Excursion, 
and then copies the conjectures of the " worthy descen- 
dent " given by Nicolson and Burn. 

In the following year 1795, W. M. furnishes the Gentle- 
mans Magazine vol. 65 p. 985, with drawings of four bears, 
extremely ill done, and quotes what Hutchinson has said 
of them, and on p. 1077 D. H. criticizes these drawings, but 
as he had not seen the originals, his remarks are of little 

* The worthy descendant is probably Mr. Recorder Milbourne, editor of the Mil- 
bourn c-Gilpin edition of Denton's History of Cumberland (see the pieface to this 
Society's edition). The daughters of Sir Humphrey Dacre of Naworth, married 
among the lesser gentry of the north : one of them is believed to have married a 
Milbourne of Talkin. 



Messrs. Lysons (published 1816 p. ccvii) say : — 

At the four corners of Dacre churchyard are rude figures of animals, 
five feet high, sitting on their haunches, and clasping a rude pillar or 
ragged staff: they seem to have been designed for bears, though they 
do not much resemble them, or indeed any other animals. It has 
been supposed that they refer to some armorial device of the Dacre 
family, as the ragged staff appears connected with the escallop shell, 
in several of the ornaments of Naworth Castle ; though we do not 
find it anywhere recorded among the arms or cognizances of that 

Jefferson in his Leath Ward 1840, p. 190, simpiy follows 
previous writers, but adds 

They (the figures) are now so much defaced that it requires great 
assistance from the imagination to discover the likeness of any animal 
or even of the branch of a tree. 

I myself have always been puzzled to understand what 
the Nevill badge of the bear and ragged staff has to do 
with Dacre, and I think the writers I have cited must fail 
to carry conviction to their readers. 

There is another theory : Clarke in his " Survey of the 
Lakes," published 1793, p. 23 says : — 

Justus, Bishop of Rochester having obtained authority to create 
bishops in this island created Paulin bishop of York : he, in the year 
626, converted Edwin King of Northumberland and his minister Coifi 
(likewise chief of the Pagan Priests) to Christianity : he likewise con- 
verted one James a learned and good man whom Bede reports to have 
been alive in his days, and to have lived at Catterick in Yorkshire. 
Coifi and James having done much service to the Christian cause, 
were in the year 633 deputed by Paulin to travel, as well for the pur- 
pose of converting the neighbouring Pagans, as for the founding of 
churches to secure the ground which Christianity might gain. Ac- 
cordingly we find that Coifi came into Cumberland, baptised great 

*In the Oratory at Naworth Castle is the badge of a silver cord twined round 
the ragged staff and the escallop, an allusion to the marriage of Thomas de Dacre 
de Gilsland with Phillippa, daughter of Ralph, Karl of Westmorland. These 
Transactions, vol. iv, p. 503. 



numbers, and founded a church at Kirkoswald in that count)- :; ' * :: * 
Coin and James, wherever they built a church, affixed to it in some 
conspicuous part the arms of Edwin and Paulin, together with their 
own. Edwin's was a bear seiant, holding a quiver ; Paulin's a bear 
seiant holding a crucifix ; and their own, each a bear seiant with an 
image upon its back. 

Clarke gives no authority for this statement, and though 
he cites it in connection with Dacre castle, he does not men- 
tion it in connection with Dacre church, nor does he mention 
the four bears there, though he must have had them in his 
mind, when he wrote the. foregoing passage. Hutchin- 
son in a foot note to his history of Cumberland cites it as 
an explanation of the four bears in Dacre churchyard, but 
these beasts do not carry the crucifix', quiver, and image, 
mentioned by Clarke, unless indeed we take image to 
mean a small beast. 

Let us now see what the four beasts or bears in Dacre 
churchyard really are : previous writers have not always 
seen the figures about which they have written. A careful 
examination of the figures in company with Mr. Whitehead 
and the vicar of Dacre has convinced me that they tell a 
consecutive and amusing story. The animal, in each case 
is a bear, sitting upright on its hind quarters and grasping 
a short pillar between its four paws. Bear undoubtedly 
the beast is, though the artist has given him a long tail 
with a tuft at the end like a lion, and also a good deal of 

No. I, at the N.W. corner. — The bear is asleep with his 
head on the top of a pillar, snugged in between his paws 
so as to be almost concealed : in fact this figure is often 
supposed to be headless, but it is not so : the head is 
turned to the bear's right and doubled down on or between 
his paws. The long tail is not visible : the bear sits upon 

No. 2, at the S.W. corner. — An animal, about the size 
of a small cat, has sprung upon the bear's back and is 



clinging on his left shoulder. The astonished bear has 
has awoke and lifted up his head, which is turned to one 
side in attitude of surprise. His long tail comes out be- 
ween his thigh and body and curls up the pillar.* 

No. 3, at the S.E. corner — a most vigorous composition. 
The bear now fully aroused, takes active measures : his 
right forepaw is reflexed over his right shoulder, and 
clutches the little beast, which is painfully elongated, just 
above where its tail joins on to the small of its back. The 
bear's head is turned to his left, and masses of dishevelled 
mane hang to that side. The tail is invisible, underneath 
the bear. 

No. 4, N.E. corner — repose. — The little beast has disap- 
peared down the throat of the bear, who rests his chin on 
the top of his pillar, while his face presents every sign of 
intense gratification : his mane has been carefully combed, 
and his tail curls up between his thigh and belly round 
his back. 

The figures are about 5 feet high, and rise, two from 
circular bases and two from bases about 18 inches square, 
each with a heavy chamfer. Although the artist, who 
produced these figures, had heterodox views on the length 
of the bear's tail, he was no mean performer with a chisel, 
and has managed to put into these figures a most sur- 
prising amount of vigour and humour — the last quality 
being very apparent in the 3rd and 4th figures. 

These figures have been the tops of pinnacles, and 
probably sometime or other adorned the top of Dacre 
church tower, or possibly the gateway orotherpart of Dacre 
castle : they have been in their present position since 
Bishop Nicolson saw them in 1704, and probably for a 
much longer period. Such pinnacles were not unusual : 
M. Viollet le Due says ; — 

The t.iil in this position gives the pillar tliu appearance of a ragged btaff. 



The decorations of religious and civil edifices present an infinite 
variety of fantastic animals during the middle ages. The bestiaries 
of the twelth or thirteenth centuries attributed to real or fabulous 
animals symbolic qualities, the tradition of which has long remained 
in the mind of people, thanks to the innumerable sculptures and 
paintings which cover our ancient monuments : the fables come next 
to add their contingent to these bestial representatives. The lion 
symbol of vigilance, force and courage ; the antula of cruelty ; the dove 
of gentleness : the siren: the pelican, symbol of charity ; the aspic, 
guarding precious balms and ever vigilant ; the screech-owl ; the 
wyvern ; the phoenix ; the basilisk, personification of the devil ; the 
dragon, to which such marvellous virtues were attributed, all these 
animals are met with in the capitals of the twelth and thirteenth 
centuries, in friezes squatted on the angles of monuments, crowning 
buttresses, seated on balustrades. At Chartres, at Rheims, at Notre 
Dame in Paris, at Amiens, Rouen, Vezelay, Auxerre, in the monu- 
ments of the west and centre of France, are populations of quaint 
animals, always rendered with great energy. At the summit of the 
two towers of the cathedral of Laon, the sculptors of the thirteenth 
century placed, in the open pinnacles, animals of colossal dimensions. 
At the angles of the buttresses of the portals of Notre Dame at Paris 
are to be seen enormous beasts, which, standing out against the sky, 
give life to these huge masses of stone.* 

England is far and more barren in such monuments than 
France or Germany, but instances could be found. 

I have not yet been able to trace in classic fable or 
mediaeval bestiary the beast fable, or beast epic these 
figures tell, but I hope shortly to light upon it. 

*Cited in the Sacristy vol. I from Dictionnaire raisonne de I' Architecture by 
M. Viollct le Due vol. I, p. 22. 


Art. XXXII. An Earthwork at Little Asby. By the 

Rev. Canon Mathews. 
Read at that place, July yd, 1890. 

riTHIS curious relic of antiquity was first brought under 
J- my notice by a letter from Mr. R. Walker, Architect, 
in a Kendal paper. Although noticed by former writers 
(as by Dr. Gibson in his " Legends of North Westmor- 
land "), I cannot find that it has ever been examined or 
described critically by any one ; and it seems well worth 
inspection, and perhaps further research by this Society. 
Even the Ordnance Survey, usually so exact, has passed it 
over, — probably from the difficulty felt in knowing how to 
describe it. 

There is an irregular oblong court, very carefully levelled, 
about 80 yards in greatest length, 24 yards wide at 
the south end, and 29 across its greatest width. The 
eastern or longest side is formed by a long mound, heaped 
up against the foot of a low hill or ridge in the limestone 
scar. Opposite, and nearly parallel to this, is another 
mound 60 yards long, which seems wholly artificial, of 
earth heaped up to from 10 to 13 feet in height. Across 
the south end, at right angles is another mound rising in 
the middle to a similar height (15 ft.) to the summit of the 
side mounds ; each of them falling away to two or three 
feet only at the corner where they meet. 

In front of this, six paces from its base, is a smaller cen- 
tral mound of irregular oval, but nearly circular, shape at 
base; about nine paces in frontage, and seven in depth, 
rising in conical shape to nine feet in height. On the 
west front angle of this are two small hillocks : a little in 
front and to the east is a small stone well, fed by a spring 
running probably from a shaly bed in the limestone scar. 
The overflow is taken by a covered conduit to the front 



of the central mound, and thence down the middle of the 
area to the north end of the court, where is another stone 
well, and in front of it a breadth of mire, part of which 
is used as a watering place for cattle. Beyond this the 
eastern mound seems to fall away into the natural hillside, 
along which, a little lower down, there appear to be con- 
siderable traces of ancient occupation. From the north 
end of the western mound a double line of stones, some 
much overgrown with turf, runs obliquely for 22 yards to 
the lower well, having the appearance of ground work 
stones of a rough wall. In front of them is a sort of ter- 
race falling away to lower ground. The whole appearance 
is very remarkable, and as far as I know, unique among 
the prehistorical relics of this neighbourhood. It has 
none of the features either of a British or Roman camp : — 
the mounds seem not sepulchral barrows, as the main 
object of the work has clearly been the area, and the 
mounds (except the small central one) have been heaped 
for its enclosure ; yet it does not appear designed for de- 
fensive purposes, as it could have been taken easily by 
an assault from the higher ground on the east. The 
whole arrangement gives to my mind the impression of a 
sacrificial area, with the central mound for a high altar, 
and the sacred well for purposes of lustration. 

I am inclined to think that some light may be thrown 
upon its origin by the usages of Celtic mythology, as set 
forth by Professor Rhys's " Celtic Mythology," (pp. 182-3, 
202-4), in which we find that the worship of the Celtic 
Zeus — the God of Sun and Sky, called in the book of 
Taliessin " The Blazer of the Mountain Tops," — was con- 
ducted on sacred mounds, on the tops of hills, so that a 
common name for him was the God of the Mounds. 
Pencrug is the name of a place devoted to the worship of 
the Chief of the mounds, surviving in Pemiocrucium or 
Penkridge, equivalent to Benncruaich the Chief of the 
mounds in Irish. And it may be that this place arranged 


«:""'■' "'■"" 






sv , r >^/f ,/ ii y t : KJOj „.„„J. jts a. .s r pt. jy 'i yyj '* jshq. 


section or S- 

4 : 




to look directly where the tirst rays of the sun would strike 
the highest tops of the Pennine hills at dawn, was a high 
place of sacrifice for the Celtic tribes, traces of whose oc- 
cupation are so abundant along the high lands that sweep 
from here over Asby and Orton scars, past Crosby Ravens- 
worth and Shap, to M oordivock above Ullswater, a region 
richer in Celtic remains than almost any other in England. 
It is like the Sacred Arcadian enclosure and well on the top 
of the Lycsean mountain, sacred to the worship of Zeus. 

As a matter of more recent interest I may mention the 
local tradition that it was chosen as a gathering place 
for secret worship by the nonconformists of the villages 
for miles around after the passing of the Act of Uniformity, 
of 1662 : — A tribute to the suggestive character of the 
place, but certainly it is of an antiquity far superior to 
that date. 

[Since the above was written the place has been 
very carefully surveyed and planned by Mr. C. W. Dymond, 
C.E., F.S.A., whose valuable remarks upon it are here 

Notes by C. W. Dymond, F.S.A. 

This earthwork — unique in plan, it is believed, among the antiqui- 
ties of these islands — is situated at Little Asby, in Westmorland 
120 yards S.E. of the site of the ruined church of St. Leonard, and 
not much farther from the northern edge of Little Asby scar. It is 
exactly on the 1000 ft. contour-line, which well indicates its shape 
and position on the 6 inch ordnance-map ; * opening toward the north 
(its axis points N. 17 W.), and sheltered on the south and east by 
gently rising ground. 

A space, nearly half an acre in extent, is inclosed on the south 
east, and west sides by three mounds; each of them rising from its 
ends to a crest in the middle of its length. The north end is now 
open ; and perhaps was always so : but there are traces of the founda- 
tions of what possibly was an ancient rude stone fence crossing the 

* Westmorland, sheet xxii. 



mouth of the inclosure ; outside which are, at one end, a small mire, 
and at the other, a broad bank or terrace, scarcely relieved from the 
general surface. 

The eastern bank, considerably longer than its vis-a-vis, is partly 
artificial and partly natural ; the lower portion being formed by ex- 
cavating the ground within to a nearly level surface. So, too, with 
the bank at the southern end, and with the nearer part of the western 
bank ; the remainder of which, toward the north, is almost wholly 
artificial. The southern portions of the two principal banks have 
been cut and carted away — so Canon Mathews was informed — to top- 
dress the neighbouring fields. 

The inclosed space is divided into two unequal portions : — (i) a 
leveled area, originally of about 1890 s. yds., and (2) a platform of 
about 370 s. yds. at its southern end. 

The main area dips outward just enough for drainage purposes. 
At its inner end, the fall from each side to the centre is two feet : 
near the outer end, one foot. In the S.E. corner is a small well, 
2 ft. 4 ins. in depth, supplied by a spring, and covered with flat stones; 
the overflow passing away by a dry stone drain, which also drains 
the area, and delivers into the mire. 

The platform is about a foot above the area at its front edge ; but 
rises toward the back six inches at the S.W. corner, and six feet at 
the S.E. corner. On this platform is raised a detached mound 9 
feet high from the ground immediately in front, and 4^ feet from the 
passage behind it. That edge of the platform to the west of the 
mound is partly marked by three small tumps which, being probed, 
appear to have no stones within them. The dividing notches have, I 
think, been made by the passage of sheep or cattle. Just to the 
west of these, on the face of the lateral bank, is a ramp, formed, no 
doubt, by the same agency. A ramp crossing the N.W. corner of 
the detached mound; and another, symmetrically corresponding with 
it, but only faintly marked over the N.E. corner, though, possibly, 
parts of the original design, are, perhaps, more likely to have slipped 
or been trodden, into their present form. In the western part of the 
platform a small oblong bank is just visible. The edge of the plat- 
form, east of the mound, is defined by two or three buried stones set a 
little back from the face of the mound. The height of the neck be- 
tween the southern and western banks above the S.W. corner of 
the platform is 6 feet, that of the one at the S.E. corner, between the 
southern and eastern banks, is a foot and a half; — the platform at 
that part, as before stated, rising several feet from its front edge. 

To complete the description, and to make the sections fully intel- 
ligible, I will give the principal dimensions in tabular form ; — pre- 


mising that the heights (which were not instrumentally observed, but 
only carefully measured by means of rods) are sufficiently near the 
truth for all practical purposes. 


Total length of eastern bank 260 

Total length of western bank 210 

Central length of area 190 

Breadth of area (N. end) 90 

Breadth of area (S. end) 75 

Length of platform (east to west) 75 

Breadth of platform (north to south) averages about 42 

Fall of drain along axis of area about 1 

Dip of area from sides to centre (N. end) 1 

Dip of area from sides to centre (S. end) 2 

Height of front edge of platform 1 

Rise of western end of platform from front edge to 

S.W. corner .... h 

Rise of eastern end of platform from front edge to 

S.E. corner 6 

Height of neck at S.W. angle 6 

Height of neck at S.E. angle .... 1^ 

Height of detached mound above ground immediately 

in front 9 

Height of detached mound above passage at back 4^ 

Height of mound at south end above same passage 11^ 

Height of mound at south end above top of detached 

mound 7 

Height of crest of eastern bank above edge of area 15 

Height of crest of western bank above edge of area 12^ 

The surface of the field north of the pond is much broken, — giving, 
at first sight, an impression that here are remains of artificial banks. 
No meaning, however, can be made out of them ; and it is possible 
that they may altogether be due to natural causes. 

Evidently this earthwork was made, if not for constant occupation, 
at least for some frequently recurring use. With none of the marks 
of a defensible post, it was manifestly designed for a place of con- 
course. Its form is not that which we generally attribute to the Celts, 
who seem to have had an aversion to straight lines; preferring cir- 
cular or erratic plans. But the Scandinavian practice, within the 
period covered by history or tradition, was often quite the reverse of 
this. With much of the Roman in their mental habit, their buildings, 



and certain structures for open air assemblies, — such, for instance, 
as " things " and duelling-lists, — were of regular and generally rec- 
tangular form. Hence, if our choice really lies between these two 
people, (but perhaps it does not), the probabilities would seem to be 
strongly in favour of the view that this earthwork was cast up by 
Scandinavian settlers in these parts, rather than by the Celts whom 
they dispossessed ; and who have left many marks of their occupancy 
in the ruined villages scattered over the uplands to the south and 
west of Asby. 

But for what purpose ? The design is well suited for a " thing " ; 
but the " things " that we know are not of this form. It is even better 
adapted to the purpose to which Canon Mathews is inclined to refer 
it — as a place of sacrifice. But here again we are met with the diffi- 
culty that the Scandinavian sacrifices in recorded — at least in later — 
times were, for the most part, performed in roofed temples, before 
the idols. It is true that there is reason for believing that formerly 
offerings were sometimes made on stone altars, and on mounds, sub 
jove: but I think there is no evidence to show whether these were 
or were not set in any such precincts as we have in the case before 
us. Tempting as the theory is, (and I must confess it is hard to 
resist it, — so appropriate are all the conditions), there is one great 
difficulty in the way of its acceptance. The Northmen being so 
devoted to sacrifice, is it not indeed strange that, considering the 
strength of their hold upon this part of England, we should have 
found only this isolated instance of a type of inclosure of which, on 
the theory in question, we might have expected to meet with many 
other examples. 

In casting about for an explanation, it is clear that we should first 
take into account the existence and position of the spring, which, it 
seems to me, was the ruling element in selecting the site. Next, we 
must put the levelling of the area, and the circumstances of the plat- 
form and its mound : then, the arrangement of the outer banks ; and 
their dip toward the. necks which divide them at the inner angles. 
I am not inclined to lay any stress on the fact of the inclosure opening 
toward the north. It may well have been that this was merely inci- 
dental to the choice of a site otherwise naturally convenient, and 
partially ready to hand. 


Art. XXXIII. The Baptismal Fonts of the Rural Deaneries 
of Gosforlh and Whitehaven. By the Rev. J. Wilson, 
M.A., Vicar of Dalston. 
Communicated at Lancaster, September 18th, 1890. 
rpHESE rural deaneries cover the whole of the south 
-*- western portion of the county of Cumberland, stretch- 
ing along the seaboard from Harrington to Millom, com- 
prising with Workington the ward of Allerdale-above- 
Derwent, and originally situated in the ancient deanery 
of Copeland, in " the great and famous " arch-deaconry 
of Richmond, and diocese of Chester. This portion of 
the county was annexed to the See of Carlisle under the 
provisions of 6 and 7 William IV, c. 77, and of an order 
in council dated the 10th of August 1847, which took 
effect on the death of Bishop Percy, in 1856. The deanery 
of Whitehaven, consisting of 15 benefices, is now in the 
arch-deaconry of Westmorland, while Gosforth with 21 
benefices is in the recently created arch-deaconry of Fur- 
ness. But it must be remembered that many of these 
benefices are either districts of modern partition, carved out 
of the old parishes, or chapelries raised to an independent 
ecclesiastical status. In the two deaneries there is not more 
than a score of parishes, which can lay claim to a distinct 
and separate history. This consideration is of importance 
in taking a general view of the fonts in our territorial area. 
It cannot be said, however, that these deaneries are rich in 
ancient and elaborate fonts, though there are some which, for 
their interest and peculiarity, will repay an attentive survey. 
Indeed, if I were bold enough to dogmatise, I might point 
to specimens characteristic of the chief periods of Gothic 
architecture amongst those I have ventured to illustrate. 



But what has struck me most in the examination, is, the 
frequency with which fonts of the very worst description 
occur, either as still doing duty, or else discarded to make 
■way for fonts of a better and more appropriate type. One 
is prepared to make allowances in matters of church 
furniture in these northern counties, as the poverty of the 
church and the unsettled state of society, owing to border 
troubles, are notorious. This reason will apply in some 
measure to Copeland, though not perhaps with so much 
force as to Gilsland and its neighbourhood, where ancient 
fonts are very scarce. Nothing can be said against those 
in Copeland which remain to us : they are in every way 
suitable to the purpose for which they were intended. I 
am referring rather to those introduced since the reforma- 
tion which seem to prevail more, and to be of a more 
debased kind than I have noticed elsewhere in the county. 
The frequency of this style of font is enough to reflect 
discredit on the religious notions, and ecclesiastical order 
of the district previous to the great church revival of 
sixty years ago. After all, was not its position unfortunate 
if not unique ? Far away from the arteries of church life, 
in the forests of Cumberland, yet not in the diocese of 
Carlisle, its chance of possessing an abundance of vital 
energy was very poor. A strange picture of its condition 
is given to us by one of its most famous sons, whose 
name will ever be linked with it to its honour. Edmund 
Grindal, Bishop of London, who always kept a sympa- 
thetic eye on his native district, writing in 1563 to Sir 
William Cecil, says : — 

I have often thought to make a general suit to you for regard to 
that little angle where I was born, called Cowpland, parcel of Cum- 
berland : the ignorantest part in religion and most oppressed of 
covetous landlords of any one part of this realm, to my knowledge 
(Remains of Abp. Grindal, pp. 256-7, Parker Society). 

Notwithstanding these disadvantages the deaneries of 
Whitehaven and Gosforth have an interest all their own, 



and make a very valuable contribution to the Baptismal 
Fonts in the modern Diocese of Carlisle. 


The parish of Gosforth has wiped off the stigma which 
Jefferson fastened on it in 1842, when he wrote about the 
font in the church : — 

The font is uncanonical both in size and position ; it is not sufficiently 
capacious and it is placed near the altar (Allerdale Ward above Dcr- 
went p. 301). 

At this time a similar charge might have been brought 
with equal truth against many churches up and down the 
country, and though great advances have been made in 
the past half century, there are still places which could fol- 
low the example of Gosforth with propriety and advantage. 
The present rubric in the book of Common Prayer, which 
is but a summary of the canon law, requires the font 
to be large enough for the immersion of the child.* The 
primary charge of the church of England is that the minis- 
ter of baptism " shall dip it in the water discreetly and 
warily." The alternative mode, recognised by our church 
at the discretion of the god-parents, is baptism by affusion, 
as the next rubric directs " if they certify that the child is 
weak, it shall suffice to pour water upon it." Out of this 
permission in cases of weakness grew the modern practice 
of baptism by affusion, which is now universal in the 
church of England, unsanctioned though it be in her con- 

* Bingham, writing of the practice of immersion in the early church, says: — 
" Indeed the church was so punctual to this rule, that we never read of any excep- 
tion made to it in ordinary cases, no not in the baptisms of infants" fAntiquities 
Vol. Ill, chap, xi, Sect. 5, p. 275, edition 1S34). 

The capacity of the font for this purpose, is thus insisted on by Archbishop 
Edmund in his Constitutions of 123G: — Baptisterium habeatur in qualibet ecclesia 
Baptismali lapideum vel aliud competens quod decenter co-operiatur & rcverenter 
observetur & in alios usus non convcrtatur. 

Lyndwood who died in r 44 r> , explains competens as- 1 - " sic quod Baptizandus 
possit in eo mergi " (Frovinciale, lib. Ill, tit. 24, p. 241, edition 1679). 

Erasmus who wrote so late as temp. Henry VIII, speaking of the usage in 
different countiies, says : — perfunduntur apud nos, merguntur apud Anglos. 



stitution, and clearly contrary to her custom in both 
primitive and mediaeval days. 

The inclination of the people carried the practice against the Rubric, 
Which still required dipping, except in case of. weakness. So that in 
the later times of Queen Elizabeth, and during the reign of King 
James and of King Charles I, very few children were dipped in the 
font ("Wall's History of Infant Baptism, part II, chap, ix) *. 

If the early Stuart practice sanctioned this violation of 
principle, as time went on a greater enormity was intro- 
duced in the custom of baptism by aspersion or sprinkling 
which became prevalent in the Georgian period. This 
mode, which had taken root in the church without a vestige 
of authority t, was the means of bringing in a debased 
class of fonts which became very common, but which, I 
am thankful to say, is fast disappearing from use. Wall, 
who flourished 1674-1728, deplores this departure from 
the ancient practice. 

The fonts that have been built since the times I speak of are, many 
of them, built so small and so basin-like, that a child cannot well be 
dipped in them if it were desired (History of Baptism, ibid). 

Out of many I am giving illustrations of two such 
specimens; one at Distington dated 1662, and the other 
at St. Bridget's, Beckermet, of date at least a century 

The position of the font is too long a story to be told 
here. The Sist canon of 1603, which is binding on the 
clergy, if not also on the laity, settles it as " in the ancient 
usual places ", which our Bishop interprets and recom- 

* It may be observed here that "the inclination of the people" spoken of by 
Dr. Wall, was initiated and supported, as Robinson, a nonconformist writer at 
the close of the last century, points out, " by such English or more strictly 
speaking Scotch exiles, as were disciplesof Calvin at Geneva during the Marian 
persecution " (History of Baptism, p. 436), 

Calvin, therefore, is the father of our present mode of Holy Baptism ! 

t Except of course in clinic baptism : I am speaking of the general custom in 
ordinary cases throughout. 


: " 1 '-"=- if 



mends as " near the chief entrance of the church " (Guide 
to the Parish Church, p. 189, edition, 1878). 

The donor of the present font at Gosforth is Admiral 
Scott, of Harecroft, whose widow was the means of re- 
storing the ancient font to Eskdale. It is octagonal and 
stands in a small recess or baptistery with groined roof 
in the vestibule of the church. The bowl is ornamented 
with quatrefoils and the shaft with perpendicular panels 
somewhat like Dalston, near Carlisle : the oaken cover is 
surmounted with a cross. 


The parish church of Millom furnishes a font which has 
points of difficulty as well as of interest. It is octagonal 
with a basin larger than usual, the interior being two feet 
in width, no lead lining, no drain, but with staple marks, 
placed a little to the west of the north door, consisting of 
two blocks of red sandstone and ornamented with quatre- 
foils and shields. The printed matter I have seen con- 
cerning it, forbears to enter into particulars, and agrees 
with Jefferson's allusion to it. 

A gallery at the west end contains an organ. Below this is an octago- 
nal stone font, ornamented with quatrefoils and a shield charged with 
the arms of Hudleston and a label (AUcrdale Ward above Derwent, 
p. 167). 

The shield of the Hudleston family may be found 
about the adjoining castle and churchyard as well as on 
the font, but as far as I know without the label. Between 
this panel and another of the same character without any 
emblazonment, there is a large shield raised from the bowl 
and extending below the swell. Though the chief or top 
of this shield is much broken, enough is left to show what 
it was. As far as one can see, it is charged in a manner 



similar to the shield on the font :;: at Dalton in Furness — 
on a pale a crozier — which is the ancient arms of Furness 

If we remember that the church of Milium was given to 
Furness Abbey in 1228, and remained in that impropria- 
tion till the Tudor changes, we shall have no difficulty in 
explaining the presence of this shield on the font. To be 
more explicit — 

The church of Millom was given to the abbey of Furness, in the year 
1228: one moiety whereof was appropriated by the archbishop of 
York to that monastery who were to present to the vicarage : the other 
moiety the archbishop reserved to his own disposition, and in the 
year 1230 he assigned it for the maintenance of three chaplains with 
clerks and other charges for his chantry ordained at the altar of St- 
Nicolas, in the cathedral church of York (Nicolson and Burn's 
History of Cumberland, Vol. II, p. 14). 

The five remaining sides have each a circular sunk 
panel with a quatrefoil. The absence of a drain is a 
singular feature which deserves attention ; there is also no 
indication that a lead lining has been ever used. From 
these peculiarities I gather, notwithstanding the staple- 
marks, that the font is of comparatively modern date. 

There seems little doubt that almost all ancient fonts were lined with 

lead, and furnished with a plug and drain, which usually 

carried the water into a small dry tank immediately underneath 
(Illustrations of Baptismal Fonts by F. A. Paley, p. 24). 

It may be safe to say, though I do so with diffidence, 
that the font is not earlier than the beginning of the six- 
teenth century. 

The remaining fonts in this ancient parish are of no 
great interest. St. George's is capacious and coeval with 

* Transactions Vol. viii, p. 120, where there is a drawing of Dalton Font. 
Compare also Hutchinson's History Vol. I, p. 523, where the arms and seal of 
Furness Abbey are illustrated. 



the erection of the church in 1877. In the chapel of 
Thwaites which was built in 1853-^, according to Whellan 
in loco, " the pulpit and the font are of Caen stone, both 
handsomely carved : the latter is sufficiently large for im- 
mersion, and is supported by four columns of Purbeck 
marble ". As for " the Kirk of Ulpha ", situated where 

The summits hoar 
Of distant moonlit mountains faintly shine, 
Sooth'd by the unseen river's gentle roar. 

" the old octagonal stone font is built into an archway in 
the south wall of the church " (Gosforth Deanery, p. 140). 


The little church of Corney is indebted for its font to 
the late dean of Rochester, Robert Scott, D.D., better 
known perhaps as joint author of Liddell and Scott's 
famous Greek Lexicon. It is placed on the north side of 
the west door, and is both capacious and handsome. The 
bowl is circular, belted with a raised double band two 
inches apart and a legend between : the legend is apparently 
a copy in English of that on the font in the neighbouring 
church of Bootle, of which the dean's father had been 
rector for thirteen years. 


The older font is to be found (1887), not in the church 
nor yet in the churchyard, but as a flower pot stand in a 
farm garden up the valley, belonging to a former church- 
warden. It is of the usual octagonal type, with no 
particular interest attached to it, except perhaps that the 
drain does not go through the stem but through the side 
of the bowl. Its base had been long missing till I dis- 


covered it built as a capital of a gate-post near the old 


After the dissolution of the religious houses by Henry 
VIII, the priory of St. Bees fell into ruins, and so con- 
tinued till 1611, when the want of a parish church was 
felt and it was fitted up for that purpose. Instead of fol- 
lowing the old arrangement, the altar was placed at the 
west end against a wall, apparently built one bay from 
the fine Norman doorway, and the entrance was made 
through the ruined chancel, where perhaps the font would 
find a place. Thus matters remained till 1820, when " the 
altar was removed to the east end of the nave ", and " the 
font set in an appropriate place " near the west entrance. 
This font, which is hexagonal and " of uncertain date, 
probably the 17th century ", is now in Cleator church, 
where it is surmounted by a tall cover, carved by Rattee 
and presented by the late Captain Fitchet. Very probably 
this font is of the date of the rebuilding of the priory, in 

In 1855 when the transepts were re-roofed and added 
to the parish church, a true restoration was carried out 
under the care and from the designs of Mr. Butterfield, 
and many presents for the internal fittings were made : 
among them, " a grand hexagonal font presented by the 
contractor, Mr. Howes ". It is very capacious, has a 
drain and leans against the most western pillar of the 
north arcade.* If the mother church can boast only of so 
modern a font, much cannot be expected of the several 
chapelries, or comparatively new parishes, situated in her 
ancient territorial boundaries. In the churches of White- 
haven, if the fonts are of recent date, they are everything 

* Much of the above information is gathered from the introduction to St. Bees 
College Calendar, which was written, I believe, by Canon Knowles. 



that can be desired in point of decency and order. St. 
Nicholas is a gift from the architect of that splendid 
church, Mr. Charles J. Ferguson, F.S.A. : Shap granite, 
with round bowl and octagonal vase. The shape of St. 
James is that of a magnified champagne glass : a brass 
plate records the name of the donor. 

D. O. M. 

Presented to this church by George Cavendish Bentinck, M.P., for 
this borough, in memory of his aunt Elizabeth, second daughter of 
William, 2nd Earl of Lonsdale, K.G. 

The previous font, the vicar informs me, was a small one 
of stone, and given away b) 7 the chuchwardens after they 
had received Mr. Bentinck's gift. A brass plate identifies 
Holy Trinity, which is very elaborate in text and symbolic 
device : — 

This font is the gift of the relatives of Mary wife of Canon Dalton, 
vicar, in affectionate remembrance of her loving interest in the young 
of this parish. Born March 2nd, 1815, died Feb. 6th. 1874. 

I have learned nothing of interest about the fonts in 
Christ church and Hensingham. In the churchyard so 
sacred to " the homely priest of Ennerdale ", lies the old 
font behind the church near the " bare wing of mossy 
wall ". It is of a type common enough in Cumberland 
churches a century ago, of which I have given an illus- 
tration from St. Bridget's Beckermet, a square pillar 
tapering to the bowl, the interior of which is not so capa- 
cious as a good sized sugar-basin. If the font in use has 
changed since the days of Wordsworth, so has the appear- 
ance of the churchyard ; of the latter it cannot now be 
said : — 

In our churchyard 
Is neither epitaph, nor monument, 
Tombstone nor name — only the turf we tread 
And a few natural graves. 



The font at Nethenvasdale, " which is of stone and 
handsomely carved, was erected in 1855, at the expense 
of Mrs. Rawson " (Whellan's History of Cumberland p. 439). 
It is almost a fac-simile. of Haile and the vestry font of 
St. John's, Beckermet ; they appear to have been exe- 
cuted from the same pattern, and probably by the same 
chisel. Though there is some difference in detail, each 
of them may be characterized as simplex munditiis, the 
only ornament of the square bowl being a maltese cross 
in a sunk panel. At Wasdale Head the font in use is 
hexagonal, of conventional dimensions. Its predecessor 
is still carefully preserved within the church, and is made 
an object of interest during the tourist season. Various 
opinions have reached me as to its probable antiquity, 
some prudent and others foolish. A very reasonable 
allusion to it is this ; — 

The font is very singular, being under two feet in height, square 
with a projection at each corner at the top, and tapering somewhat 
towards the foot : it is of red sandstone (Gosforth Deanery, p. 68). 

The square stone which covers the basin or orifice and 
which is pointed out to tourists as " the antiquarian lid ", 
in the same manner as the font itself is said to be " of 
Pre-Saxon date ", is without doubt the base, and ought to 
be placed as as I have shown it in the accompanying 
sketch. It is of novel shape, poor and commonplace, 
much like the disused font (if it has ever been a font) in 
a cottage garden, near the church of Over Denton in 

But the most interesting font in the ancient and exten- 
sive parish of St. Bees — the largest in the county accor- 
ding to Whellan — is to be found in the parish of Eskdale. 
The only original part is the bowl, which is like Harrington 
octagonal and prism-shaped with a drain and staple-marks, 
having one side broken. The interior is circular with a 


: , J 



flat bottom and thin sides, : the lead lining has long since 
disappeared, though the bevelled edge around the lip 
marks its former existence. Apart from external orna- 
mentation, it so resembles Harrington, that one is inclined 
to trace both to the same influence. A glance at the 
font will be sufficient to show that it has passed through 
many vicissitudes and has been used for purposes other 
than sacred. 

The ancient octagonal font, seemingly of the same date as the east 
window (1330), stands at the west end. It has a history, having been 
for many years cast out and used for farm purposes, apparently about 
1814, as in that year the chapehvardens enter in their accounts 
" Font, iis ". It was recognised and restored to the church in 1876, 
and mounted on a new base inscribed " Suffer little children to come 
unto me ", all being done at the expense of Frances, widow of the late 
Rear Admiral Francis Scott, C.B., Harecroft, Gosforth {Gosforth 
Deanery, pp. 96-7). 

The name of the farm where the font was recognised * 
is Church House, where the present owner (1887) re- 
members it as standing in his father's farmyard over sixty 
ago, and at that time being used for very vile purposes. 
No tradition is known in that family to account for its 
removal from the church. I was informed in the valley 
that before its restoration there was " a sma' littel sum- 
mat " which held a basin near the communion table, 
from which the children were baptized. The old font is 
now in its proper place near the south door on anew stem 
and base : on the platform which is elongated to the west 
there is a brass plate with this inscription : — 

Restored to the Glory of God, 
and in loving memory of 
Admiral Francis Scott, C.B. 

* By Rev. W. S. Calverlcy, at that time curate of Eskdale. 



whilst round the octagonal base is incised the text given 

It would be possible to give similar examples of che- 
quered history, where the font has been alienated from the 
church for years, perhaps for centuries, and afterwards 
restored to hallowed uses. As I desire to draw attention 
to the unhappy fate and yet the happy restoration of the 
Eskdale font, I may be permitted to instance an analogous 
case if it were only to stimulate a worthy imitation. 

At the beginning of the present century when a rage for cleansing 
churches (as it was called), by means of whitewashing them, fired the 
minds of rural churchwardens : when also it seemed good to them 
to remove ancient fonts, and to fill their places with little basins, 

the antique font in Harrow church was literally cast out 

of the sacred edifice, and allowed to roll about in the adjacent burial- 
ground. Here, after the leaden lining had been torn out and disposed 
of, it might have remained until, battered and weather-worn, it 
perished altogether. Fortunately, however, a lady, who at that time 

occcupied the vicarage house happened to observe the 

deplorable condition to which the font had been reduced : and, having 
obtained possession of it, placed it in her garden, hoping that in due 
time, if kept in security, it might be restored to its proper position in 
the church. Thus after an interval of many years — during which it 
was clad with ivy and protected from the weather in a sheltered 
nook — it was, on the restoration of the church, reclaimed : and, being 
polished and mounted on a suitable block of stone, occupies once 
more its appropriate place, and forms a prominent and interesting 
feature in that beautiful structure (Antiquary, Vol. xvi, p. 220). 

The peculiarity of the Eskdale font is a feature of the 
ornamentation, which I take to be the wheel, emblem of 
St. Catherine, virgin and martyr, to whom the church is 
dedicated. For the reason and date of this dedication, so 
rare in the north of England, I may refer you to a paper by 
my learned friend, the Rev. Thomas Lees, F.S.A., in 
these Transactions (Vol. xi, p. 50). Besides the testimony 
of the font " some of the windows contain stained-glass 
among which is conspicuous the figure of the patron saint 



and her wheel" (Allerdale Ward above Derwent, p. 424); 
this old glass was unfortunately lost at the dismantling of 
the church, in 1881. There is a holy well, known as St. 
Catherine's, just outside the churchyard wall, and I am 
informed that the Saint's name is found in Lombardic 
letters on one of the bells. This is an instance where 
the dedication of the church is sufficiently well authenti- 
cated, notwithstanding some views recently expressed by 
a reviewer in the A thencsum. Perhaps the warning may 
be useful. 

Mr. Bates has contributed a learned paper on the dedications of the 
old churches of the diocese of Newcastle. It is an intricate subject, 
into which ignorant compilers during the last century have intro- 
duced much needless confusion. Dedications to saints were a reality 
in times when their invocation was a part of the national religion : 
when the Tudor changes took place they became forgotten except 
when kept in memory by great feasts and fairs. It should, therefore, 
be borne in mind by all antiquaries that no information on the matter 
can be held to be trustworthy that does not extend back to a period 
beyond the Reformation. No one who has not studied this branch of 
mediaeval lore can imagine how much light the dedication of a church 
will often throw on past times, and on the sympathies of those by 
whom the church was built. Mr. Bates says, that when a mediaeval 
bell exists with an invocation of a saint thereon, we have sometimes 
here a key to the dedication of the church. Such is not the case. 
In fact, it seems to have been more commonly the custom to avoid 
dedicating the bells to the saint who gave his name to the church. 
Holy wells, too, have been often considered to furnish the information 
required : but if used for this purpose the information they give is 
commonly misleading. The most authentic sources of knowledge on 
this subject, are the wills of those who desired to be buried in this or 
that church or adjoining churchyard. Its dedication is commonly, 
though not always, given (Athenceum, Sept. 20th, pp. 391-2). 

As allusions to St. Catherine are so numerous in and 
about this church, and as there is only one other similar 
dedication in the diocese of Carlisle, if we except the 
chantry in Carlisle Cathedral, I may be excused giving 
what Mrs. Jameson says on the devotional representations 
of this saint. 



As patroness she has many attributes ; she bears the palm as martyr : 
the sword expresses the manner of her death : the crown is hers of 
right as sovereign princess : she holds the book as significant of her 
learning: she tramples on the pagan tyrant. All these attributes 
may be found in the effigies of other saints : but the special and 
peculiar attribute of St. Catherine is the wheel. When entire it is 
the emblem of torture to which she was exposed: in the later pic- 
tures it is oftener broken : it is then an historical attribute, it repre- 
sents the instrument by which she was to have been tortured, and 
the miracle through which she was redeemed. She leans upon it, or 
it lies at her feet, or an angel bears it over her head. In Raphael's 
St. Catherine, in our National Gallery, she leans on the wheel, and 
no other attribute is introduced : this, however, is very uncommon ; 
the characteristic sword and the book* are generally present, even 
where the crown and palm are omitted (Sacred and Legendary Art, 
Vol. II, p. 88). 

In this charming valley with its small population 
baptisms are not frequent, but a century or more ago 
when an occasion of this nature did occur we get a beau- 
tiful picture, no doubt sometimes abused, of the patriarchal 
mode of life, when the whole community assembled at 
the christening (Hutchinson's History of Cumberland, Vol. 
I, P- 579)- 


The font now in use in Harrington Church is modern and 
of the usual octagonal shape, given by the father of the 
present rector, the Rev. A. F. Curvven, on his appoint- 
ment to the charge of the parish, and bearing date 

Octr. 4th, 


In reference to this font and its immediate predecessor, I 
take a few sentences from an interesting speech made by 
Mr. Curwen at the opening of a bazaar as reported in the 

* The sword and wheel are her emblems in the east window of Bowness Church> 
Windermere. See Windermere CBoicnessJ Parish Church and its old glass- 
These Transactions, Vol. iv, pp. 44-75. 



;l A i 



Cumberland Pacquct of Sept. 8th, 1887. Reviewing his 
work of "just a quarter of a century this month, since he 
had the pleasure of coming to live among them ", he 
said : — 

At that time their parish church was in a different position from 
what it was now. They had a church, it was true, which was dear 
to many of them from old associations, but it was a damp and very 
ugly building, very unsuitable to the wants of the people. The font 
at that time was merely a hole cut in the sill of the east window : the 
communion plate was old battered pewter : and they had a har- 
monium. This was all changed now. They began with a new and 
handsome font: the pewter was turned into silver: and the har- 
monium gave way to a good organ : finally the old church was swept 
away and the present commodious structure in which they worshipped 
was erected. 

It may seem a little strange that the ancient font, 
which we find now on a cubical block of stone in the 
vestibule of the church, should have been overlooked in or 
before the year 1862, seeing that it is of rare form and at 
least of thirteenth century date : indeed a good authority 
on these matters thinks he sees in it traces of Norman 
influence, and is inclined to place it in the opening years 
of the Lancet period. But through the kindness of the 
rector I am able to give a satisfactory explanation of the 
oversight. Writing to me he says : — 

When I came to Harrington I found the old font built into the wall 
of the tower, on the south side, in such a manner that the bottom of 
it was flush with the outside of the wall, and the lip with the inside : 
it was used for holding the ropes for lowering coffins. I need not 
say that I at once rescued it, and would have replaced it in the 
church if it had not been that my father had just presented the church 
with the present font. It is 12th century work and the design shows 
what the original church must have been like, as in pulling it down 
to rebuild in 1884, we found many fragments of pillars of just such 
work : also a Roman altar on which is praef coh ii ling. This is 
now at Netherhall. 

Like the font in Eskdale church, with which it has many 
features in common, it is octagonal and prism-shaped, 



with circular basin, flat-bottom, and thin sides. Though 
the lip of the bowl is much mutilated, the old adjuncts of 
the lid or cover — the marks of the hinges and the iron 
staple to secure the hasp or lock — remain in situ. The 
ornamentation is a plain pointed arcade of interlaced arches 
encircling the font, with a conventional flower filling in the 
alternate spandrels. 

From the illustration it will be seen that a date, in the 
characteristic figures of the period, is incised on one of the 
faces of the bowl, but this must be a later addition and 
cannot refer to the original production of the font. The 
date seems rather to record some rebuilding or restoration 
of the church : probably the rebuilding of the tower in the 
17th century, when the font found a place in its south 
wall. To support this conclusion I may notice that " the 
tower contains one bell, with the date 1670 ' : (Jefferson's 
Allerdah Ward above Derwent, p. 11). 


The church of Waberthwaite has a font with all the 
characteristics of very early workmanship. It is one of 
the rudest specimens I have seen in the diocese, akin to 
those of Gilcrux and Crosby-on-Eden in the massive 
plainness of its style : a rectangular block of red sand- 
stone with a drain, lead lining, and staple marks. As it 
has no stem, " it sits " behind the south door, buried in a 
square pew, the margin of the bowl just appearing above 
the seat. 

At the time of church " restorations ", fonts of this de- 
scription have to run the gauntlet, as their very existence is 
imperilled : correct people are always ready to discard 
the rude block of stone, no matter how much bound up 
with the most sacred traditions of the parish, and to sub- 
stitute a modern article with tawdry ornamentation and 
little beauty. As churchwardens are great sinners in 



^===^-'%' F % 









their treatment of ancient fonts, this warning, I hope, 
will be in good time to those " officers of the ordinary ", 
in the parish of Waberthwaite, that their Norman font 
may be raised on a fitting shaft, and preserved in their 
interesting little church after its much needed repair. 


The font in Bootle church has received some attention 
from local antiquaries, owing chiefly to its somewhat 
obscure inscription. In this way it furnishes a parallel 
to the fonts at Bridekirk and Crosthwaite in this county, 
as well as to many others in England. It bears some re- 
semblance to that at Bourn in Lincolnshire, which is of 
perpendicular date, and to which the inscription approx- 
imates in meaning : like Threckingham also in the same 
county it affords a puzzle over which 

With sharpen'd sight, pale antiquaries pore 

and have pored in vain, as no satisfactory explanation has 
yet been given. With regard to the custom of putting 
inscriptions on fonts, Mr. F. A. Paley thinks that " per- 
pendicular fonts more frequently than any other exhibit 
this peculiarity ". After giving several examples, he 
says : — 

The beauty and appropriateness oF this kind of decoration no one 
will dispute. A legend, whether dedicatory or scriptural, is a be- 
coming way of conveying instruction or commemorating an act of 
pious beneficence (Illustrations of Baptismal Fonts, p. 27). 

But however beautiful or appropriate, it is not always 
easy to decipher the inscription, specially when enig- 
matic lettering or initials form the whole or part of it. 
As the font has produced some difference of opinion it may- 
be of interest if I notice the chief historic references. 



The first allusion I find is by Hutchinson in 1794, by 
whom the font is figured and the inscription given at length 
with tolerable accuracy {History of Climber I and. Vol. I, p. 
523). What he proceeds to say concerning it is quite 
another matter : — 

The church was lately repaired, being reputed to be a very ancient 
structure. The font is a large basin, formed of black marble or 
porphyry, of an octagonal form : on each square or face are two 
shields, raised from the plane, bearing characters in the old English 
letter, in some parts mixed with the Saxon. 

The emblematical anchor in the third shield is rather singular, as 
it stands for the word Salvator. The letters R.B. in the two first 
shields denote the benefactor who gave the font, or the stonecutter 
who executed the work. The character in the fourth shield we are 
not able to decypher (Ibid, Vol. I, p. 559). 

No one who has seen the monument can subscribe his 
description of it, or his reading of the inscription. 

Jefferson in 1842 gives his own version of it, and severely 
criticises Hutchinson for inaccuracy with regard to this 
font, though perhaps unnecessarily, as his own testimony 
is not quite unimpeachable. For the sake of clearness 
and comparison I quote the reference : — 

The font, placed in a pew at the west end, is octagonal, with a capa- 
cious circular basin. It is quite plain, excepting a string-course 
round the centre. The top part, which is larger than the pedestal, 
bears eight (sic) shields, two on each side, with this inscription in 
text hand: — 

In nomine patri & ftlii & spirit' sartia, 

There are also the initials R.B., and on another shield a bugle 
horn and the initials, i.J). The former letters might be the initials 
of the lord of the seigniory of Millom, or the incumbent, or the 
abbot of St Mary's at York to whom the church belonged. This font, 
which is of marble, has been (perhaps unnecessarily) painted. It is 
placed in a corner, so that six of its sides are now concealed by the 
walls and pews (Allerdale Ward above Derwent, pp. 132-5). 

Whellan, 20 years later, adds little to our information ex- 
cept that he corrects Hutchinson and Jefferson as to the 



material of the font : he rightly calls it " red sandstone," 
which is very apparent now that it is divested of its suc- 
cessive coats of paint (History of Cumberland, p. 485). 

The Rev. S. W. Watson, the amiahle rector of the 
parish, who is always ready to point out the features of 
his church, is very judicious in his pronouncement on the 
obscurity of this inscription, and seems to me to have 
arrived at the most reasonable conclusion as far as it can 
be ascertained with certainty. He says : — 

The chief object of interest in the church is the font, which has given 
rise to much discussion. It is octagonal in shape, standing three 
feet in height, and two feet six inches in diameter, with the following 
inscription on shields on six of its sides : — 

" |n nomine natri et filii et spirit' sarii a.'' 

The seventh has R.B. in large letters, which it is thought are the 
initials of Richard Brown, rector of Bootle in 1535. The eighth has 
a bugle horn and i.Ij- and two other letters which have not yet been 
explained. As the lords of Millom carried a horn ;: for their arms, 
it may be gathered probably that the font was either presented to 
the church by J. Hudleston, lord of Millom, during R. Brown's in- 
cumbency, or by R. Brown in J. Hudleston's time. The handsome 
oak cover to this font was presented by the Rev. A. Wilkin. There 
is another small font or basin of black marble about 8 inches high, 
of which there is no record, f 

* Confer "The Horn of Egremont Castle," by William Wordsworth, beginning 

When the brothers reached the gateway, 

Eustace pointed with his lance 
To the horn which there was hanging : 
Horn of the inheritance, 
and concluding 

Sons he had, saw sons of theirs : 

And through ages, heirs of heirs, 
A long posterity renowned, 

Sounded the horn which they alone could sound, 
t Procured perhaps by the puritan minister in the time of the Commonwealth in 
obedience to the Director// which had reformed fonts into basins. " The use 
was," according to Dr. Wall, "the minister continuing in his reading desk, the 
child was brought and held below him : and there was placed for that use a little 
basin of water about the bigness of a syllabub pot, into which the minister dipping 
his finders and then holding his hand over the child's face, some drops would fall 
from his fingers on the child's face ". 



It is only necessary to call attention to our learned 
President's opinion, as it is already embodied in these 
Transactions, (Vol. ix, p. 121): he does not hazard an ex- 
planation of the difficult part of the legend though he is 
good enough to show what it does not mean. With such 
an example before me I shall not add to the multiplicity 
of versions: the fools of limited knowledge must not rush 
in where the angels of wide experience fear to tread. I 
had rather be content with giving a fac-simile of the in- 
scription as it appears on the font, and leave to the curious 
the satisfaction of their own conclusions. This warning 
I may be permitted to add, that the last shield has evi- 
dently been tampered with : the chisel has been used to 
take away more than the paint, thereby causing much of 
the obscurity. (See appendix to this paper p. 359). 


The church of Moresby was built in 1882, on a site 
a little to the north of the ancient building and within the 
area of the Roman camp. The chancel arch * of the 
former church, early English pattern, is left in statu quo 
in the churchyard. The font which is now in the porch 
was taken from the old church, where it was attached 
to the wall : it is, if we believe the sexton who is the 

* On this arch in the churchyard a brass plate is nailed with an inscription I 
have not yet seen in print. It may be useful to genealogists, if I give it here. 

" Near this spot in the chancel of the old church were interred along with those 
of others of their families the remains of 

William Fletcher 

Henry Fletcher 

Henry Fletcher 

William Fletcher and 

Thomas Fletcher 
all of Moresby Hall, who from the year 1576 to about 1721 were successively (ex- 
cept the second Henry who died in his father's life-time) lords of the manor of 
Moresby, and patrons of this church. This plate is erected in place of one which 
was lost or destroyed when the old church was taken down, in 1S22". 

Whellan says the oiiginal brass was taken away out of the church about 1S40, 
by some person unknown, and all clue to it lost (History, p. 422). 




very embodiment of local tradition, about 700 years old. 
That it has been used as a font I have no doubt, but I am 
more inclined to say that it was originally a holy water 
stoup, of which it has many of the characteristics. 

In this country a small niche with a stone basin was formed in the 
wall, either in the porch or within the church close to the door, or in 
one of the pillars nearest to the door as a receptacle for holy water 
but sometimes a vessel placed on a stand or pedestal was used : the 
niches resemble piscinas except that they differ in situation, are 
smaller and plainer, and very rarely have any hole in the bottom. 
(Glossary 0/ Architecture, Vol. I, p. 448). 

It is now balanced on a pyramidal block of stone, and 
used to stand on the north side of the principal entrance 
near the vestry door, where its place is usurped by a 
heating stove. The font in use is a marble pillar of very 
indifferent pattern, like that at Calderbridge : but the 
church authorities are procuring a proper font which will, 
I am told, be a credit to their church, and a fitting orna- 
ment to their neat little baptistery on the south side. 

On each side of the chancel arch, which was built about 
five years ago, are figured the heads of two mitred 
prelates : on the south, Bishop Goodwin ; on the north, 
Archbishop Thomson. 


Under the shoulder of Black Comb, are the two little 
churches of Whitbeck and Whicham, of some interest in 
themselves and possessing fonts of which I have given illus- 
trations. The Whitbeck font has a square appearance, 
consisting of a cluster of pillars with the capitals hollowed 
into a shallow quatrefoil to form the bowl. At some period 
of its history, one side was chiselled away to fit closely to 
the wall, which, now that it stands alone, makes it look 
lop-sided. It is of uncertain date, after the early English 



pattern, painted a green stone colour, has a drain and is 
placed on a new platform opoosite the west entrance. 
The font of Whicham is in very bad repair, may be of any 
date from the Reformation to Queen Anne, octagonal, with 
a deep bowl and narrow rim, red sandstone painted green. 


When the new church was built in Distington a few 
years ago, a marble font was presented and placed to the 
west of the south entrance. It calls for no special remark, 
except that its dimensions correspond to the requirements 
of the sacrament. It bears an appropriate text around 
the circular bowl : — 

Except a man be born of water and of the Spirit he cannot enter the 
kingdom of God. 

Its predecessor is quite in keeping with religious notions 
prevalent in this northern diocese, and indeed everywhere 
in England, at the time of its introduction. It may be 
described as a square pillar of white sandstone, consisting 
of a long waist or stem chamfered almost into octagonal 
shape. The bowl which has a drain, lead lining, and 
chamfered edges, is ornamented on one side with a sunk 
panel, having in raised figures 


This font I found in the crypt amidst the debris of the 
last Easter decorations, the old pulpit, the barrel organ, 
and other survivals of the old church furniture. Half a 
century ago it was considered of some interest : — 

There is a stone font of a square form, under the organ at the western 
end, which bears the date 1662 (Allcrdalc Ward above Dement, p. 8o) > 

I have ventured to drag it again into light, not that I 
should wish to see it replaced for an)' sacred purpose, but 
that I desire to illustrate a font characteristic of a period 
of church history. 


N ll 

I / 


1 »tflWi 






Another tout inscribed with a date is now doing duty 
as a flower pot, in the vegetable garden of Thomas Dixon 
Esq., of Rheda. It has been recently rescued from a 
stone wall in the neighbourhood of the church, and placed 
in its present position for safety. Forty years ago the 
Rev. F. J. Allnatt, who was then vicar of Arlecdon, re- 
members it acting in another capacity at a farmhouse in 
the parish : it was then used as a trough under a spout 
to catch rain-water from the roof. It is octagonal, of 
curious workmanship, with a well defined moulding 
at the base, resting on a square foot or plinth, chamfered 
to meet a stem, which is not forthcoming. The basin 
is of regulation size, but as it was filled with soil growing 
rare plants, it was not convenient for me to examine the 
interior. The character of the figures composing the date 


does not appear to be of that period, which makes me 
think that the date is either a later addition, or that the font 
itself is only a copy of a former monument. At all events 
it has received some rough usage. The present font in 
the church is a gift from Mr. Isaac Fletcher, of High 

The remaining fonts in these deaneries do not call for 
a detailed description. In the churches of Irton and Drigg, 
the fonts are all that can be desired : that in the former 
church is situated in a baptistery, under the square tower 
at the west end, and bears this memorial on a brass 
plate : — 

This font was erected in affectionate remembrance of R. W. Skef- 
fington Lutwidge, Esq., Commissioner in Lunacy, who died at 
Salisbury, 28th of May 1873, from the result of a blow received from 
a lunatic whilst visiting the asylum near that city, by his nephew 
C. R. Fletcher Lutwidge, Esq., of Holmrook Hall. 



The district of Beckermet contains for our purpose three 
churches, which taken altogether may be said to possess 
an ample number of fonts. In St. John's, I noticed no less 
than three : the earliest, a pillar of the " syllabub pot " 
pattern, in the churchyard near the south door, which 
bears a family likeness to its neighbour at St. Bridget's, and 
a score of others in these deaneries : another in the vestry, 
akin to Haile and Netherwasdale : the third, now in use, 
the gift of Mrs. Howson, of Whitehaven. What shall I 
say of Calderbridge ? Perhaps this much, that the vestry 
font of St John's, if removed to this church, and placed in 
canonical position, which is not in the south transept, 
would be an immense improvement. It is a pleasure to 
meet with modern fonts like those in Ponsonby and Mun- 
caster. Like Irton the font in Ponsonby church finds a 
place in the baptistery, at the west end near the north door 
and bears a memorial inscription : — 

To the glory of God, and in loving memory of Samson and Mary 
Senhouse, and Sarah le Messurier. 

while around the octagonal bowl is an appropriate text. 
The tradition of the place asserts that the old font, an 
unseemly one of wood, was destroyed when the new one 
was given. The same story comes from Muncaster, that 
the former font " was broken up mebbe to gravel the 
rwoads wi ", when the Lord Muncaster's gift was received 
some thirty years ago. This font is elaborately carved 
and emblazoned with several shields of arms, but without 
the necessary drain. Around the rim on a chamfered 
edge there is this legend in raised characters : — 

Given to the church of St. Michael, at Muncaster, in grateful re- 
membrance of the christening of his daughter, Margaret Susan 
Elizabeth, by Gamel Augustus Lord Muncaster, August. XXIXth, 

The font in the church of Cleator Moor is the joint gift 
of the Sunday School scholars, and the children of John 



Stirling, Esq., made in 1S72, as I learn from a brass plate 
attached to the base. Lamplugh can boast of two fonts : 
that in the church which is modern and capacious, and 
another inside the rectory gates, " under the canopy of 
heaven ", filled with clay and weeds. This old font is plain 
octagonal, massive, and with a bowl, of at least 16th cen- 
tury date. Why it should have been discarded is a 
puzzle. In Egremont the font is a shell held in the hands 
and resting on the knee of an angel : it is placed in a 
neat little baptistery at the west end, and bears this in- 
scription ; — 

The font was dedicated to the glory of God, and in memory of then 
parents by the children of Thomas and Georgiana Elizabeth Hartley, 
of Gillfoot, A.D. 1883. 

The Rev. W. E. Strickland, the late rector, supplies me 
with the following information about the fonts in this 
church : — 

The font outside is a pillar capital hollowed for the purpose, about the 
year 1740. No tradition or trace of predecessor. The present font 
is peculiar and a copy of the one in Inverness Cathedral, which again 
is a copy of Thorvaldsen's font in Copenhagen Cathedral. 

In 1887 " the font outside " was standing in front of the 
west end of the church : in 1890 it was turned upside 
down amongst some rubbish near the entrance gate. Sic 
transit gloria mundi. 

The illustrations are by an amateur. 


Mr. H. Swainson Cowper, F.S.A., makes an ingenious conjecture 
as to the inscription on the Bootle font. He takes the legend to 
begin with R.B. thus making the difficult shield which comes last in 
Mr. Wilson's version, to come number four, while the shield with ^it 


is five. Mr. Cowper suggests that the mason intended to cut |$fn 
on the fourth shield, but turned his template the wrong way, and so 
spoilt the shield : when he was told of his mistake, he commenced 
afresh on the the next shield. Opinions differ as to whether the 
characters on the fourth shield, as seen inverted in a looking glass, 
bear this out. 


Art. XXXIV. The Reeans of High Funtcss. By Rev. T. 

Ellwood, M.A., rector of Torver. 
Read at Lancaster, Sept. 18th, 1890. 

THE field names of Furness could, I think, if rightly 
read, be made to disclose an interesting portion of its 
unwritten history, and if we could but map and analyse 
the name of every field and farm, and then try to trace 
when and why these names were given them, we might 
find definite land marks, so to speak, of some of the earlier 
periods of settlement and enclosure, — methods of early 
cultivation, — and conditions of tenure of the soil. 

We should find, for example, field names that have been 
applied recently to some of the new and later enclosures, 
and we should find earlier names such as intake, croft, 
parrock, park, garth ; and then indicating an earlier period 
still, we should find such names as thwaites, hummers, gards, 

Yet however far back we may trace the origin in this 
stratification, if I may so call it, of the field names of Fur- 
ness you can never get beyond the Anglo-Saxon, or Norse. 
I class those two together, for those who spoke them were 
so nearly allied in race and language, that in some words 
it is at times difficult to say to whether race and language 
our earliest place names and dialect ought to be referred. 
And yet, at any rate in our part of the country, when a 
distinction can be made, our earliest dialect and field 
names seem unmistakeably to point to the Norse. 

I think I could soon prove this in reference to the 
dialect. We may take a passage — and one could find 
numbers of such passages in an Icelandic Bible — but in 
this instance it is a portion of the 1st verse of the 45th 
chapter of Genesis, where Joseph says; "Cause every 
man to go out from me," that passage in the Icelandic is : 



" Latid hvern mann gang ut (oot) fra mcr." Translate 
" Cause every man to go out from me " into the dialect of 
Cumberland or Furness, and we find the result of it 
to be something very like the following " Let every man 
gang oot fra me." There is not much difference between 
this and the same passage in the Icelandic or Norse. That 
word gang is a more especial mark of the bond of brother- 
hood in the great northern family of languages. It is gang 
in Ulphilas, gang in Anglo-Saxon, gang and^Yz in Islandic, 
ganga and ga in Danish, gang and ga in Swedish. One 
of the old Norse seven league boot men was called Ralph 
the Ganger ; and a very industiious old housewife whom 
I once knew upon the Border, when giving me an epitome 
of her life-long experience, summed it up in this way : "its 
gang gang gang, aye, gang gang, and when aw canna 
gang nea langer awm dune ". 

And this connexion in sound and significance between 
the Norse and our northern vocabulary is just as marked 
and evident when we turn from the dialect, to the earliest 
names of the field and of the farm. Thwaiie in the one 
as in the other is a place cut off, or a clearing, used as a 
common noun, and also as a proper noun ; Hummer, 
without any change of form or sound, means a grassy 
slope or vale in Lakeland, and means a grassy slope or 
vale in Iceland, Ings or Engs are meadows in the one lan- 
guage as well as in the other; Haggs or Haughs are pas- 
turages on the borders and in southern Scotland, as well as 
in Iceland. Dillicarhom deila to divide, and Danish kar a 
cnp, is used of a section of land laying in the form of a cup or 
circle, which has been sub-divided into fields, hence called 
dillicars : from such a derivation the name would mean 
literally the dales or divisions of the circle, and there is a 
case in this parish, where six fields together forming 
something like a circle are hence called " The Dillicars". 
Rccn or Ager-reen is a strip or ridge between two fields 
or sections of land in Denmark. Rein is a strip and 



ragna rein is the heavenly stripe or rainbow in Iceland, 
and hence we get precisely the meaning of the word under 
consideration, for the reins or reeans of High Furness 
are the strips or uncultivated portions which were used 
to encircle the ploughed fields ; elsewhere they have the 
name of Head Riggs. The name reean however serves 
best to mark their origin, for they arose from the uncul- 
tivated strips which, before town fields and commons were 
divided by fences, were left untilled in order to mark the 
boundaries, and in many cases, notably in what was for- 
merly a town field close to where I live, long stone wails 
mark the exact boundaries of what consisted, to within 
living memory, of long untilled reeans. The town fields 
of Torver and Coniston, are still to some extent in exis- 
tence : the old modes of tenure and division are still well 
remembered, and the reeans and meerstones* by which 
they were divided are still partly left standing and in use; 
they enabled and in some cases still enable the land- 
holders each to distinguish his own particular dale, or 
share. This word dale or deeal which in this connexion 
is often used as a field name, needs a passing remark. It 
is not dale or deeal a valley, but comes from another root 
Norse deila, to divide or allot ; deildr hlutr is a share 
divided or alloted to any one, and so a dale or deeal in a 
town field was a share or allotment, divided or cut off by 
a reean. Hence in old deeds people's rights in town fields 
are spoken of as so many dales or shares. Of course this 
word in its sense of dividing or sharing is common enough 
in all Scandinavian and Teutonic languages. Ulphilas 
has dailjan in this meaning; and in the like sense we have 
the word deal ; this early meaning of allot in the word deal 
comes very evidently in some older writings, as for example 
in that passage in epistle to the Romans, where the apostle 

*The word meerstone is derived from the Anglo-Saxon meer common or waste 
land; moor is a cognate word. 

" according 


says: "according as God hath dealt to every man his 
measure of faith." 

In several cases in Furness, the forms of fields laying 
side hy side mark where the town fields and the dividing 
reeans have been. This is notably the case with some 
fields at Askam-in-Furness, and I remember that once 
when I was in Normandy, I was struck by the way in 
which the long strips of land lay side by side in the 
district through which we passed. An after inquiry proved 
that there had been a similar method of division, and that 
doubtless those same northmen who brought this name 
and this method of division into the valleys of Cumber- 
land, and Westmorland, and the Lancashire Lakeland, had 
also carried the names of Northmen or Normans to Nor- 
mandy, and also had left there in the strips and reeans of 
their early cultivation, an enduring evidence of their 
language and of their race. 

And if we look forward as we have looked backward I do 
not know whether we cannot see something of the same 
kind going on at present. For if you examine the map 
of Tasmania, you will find the sister counties of Cumber- 
land and Westmorland there, laying side by side with a 
Derwentwater and a chain of lakes and mountains between 
them, and there is no doubt but that the emigrants who 
have thus so faithfully reproduced the name and position 
of their native counties, will like the old Norsemen have as 
faithfully reproduced our field and farm names in the land 
of their adoption, and that the antiquary and philologist 
of a far future age will still find in his place-names and 
language an irrefutable evidence of that place and lan- 
guage from where he had originally sprung. 

Recurring again, however, to the subject more imme- 
diately under consideration, I may remark that there is in 
the history of those reeans of High Furness, as well as 
in the meerstones which served for dividing the grass- 
lands, evidence of the early tenure of a village community 



in which every memher had equal and acknowledged 
rights. There is an example in the parish of Torver, in 
land situated^in the old town field, in which the tenants 
of two adjoining portions of land exchange them yearly, 
and have done from time immemorial, and there are other 
instances in which two or three have equal dales or rights 
in the same field, originally a portion of the town field, 
and the division is still made by meerstones, i.e. stones 
placed at the corners of the portions divided, so that the 
straight lines between those stones mark the boundary. 
There are several other words which in Furness, or 
elsewhere in Cumberland or Westmorland, have a special 
local meaning to indicate shares in grass-lands, commons, 
and pastures, and the rights of fuel and turbary : such 
are grasses, stints, lotments, cattle gates, darracks, green 
hews, and^there is a passage in the laws of Ine (A.D. 670) 
entitled "Be Ceorlees Gaers Tune", i.e. "of Farmers 
Grass Fields ", in which the law is laid down, and the 
custom made clear about the general fencing around the 
town common grass field, and also around the portion 
that was divided into allotments or reeans. The system 
of reeans, or ranes as it is there spelled, prevailed in Cum- 
berland, and Dickinson in his glossary of the Cumberland 
Dialect (English Dialect Society), defines rig and rant, a 
phrase common in Cumberland formerly, as " an arable 
field held in shares, which are divided by narrow green 
lanes (ranes), and the intervals usually cultivated " : I un- 
derstand some of the latest instances of this method are 
to be found at Orton near Carlisle, and Bowness-on-Solway. 
J. B. Davis of Kirkby Stephen, thus tersely describes the 
system as it prevailed in Westmorland : " The name 
reeans is used here for narrow strips of grass land a little 
higher than the ground on either side, left in closes called 
field lands or dale lands to mark the division of each land 
or dale. We have fields called raynes, sloping /ands with 



riggs or terraces, on the lower side of which there is 
usually a reean or slightly elevated strip. These ele- 
vated strips are often levelled down, but the name is still 
retained ". The president of this society has kindly in- 
formed me that he understands this mode of division is still 
in operation in a field near Tebay. 

It prevailed also in Yorkshire, and Lucas gives a des- 
cription of the system formerly in use there, which seems 
to coincide with what prevailed in Cumberland, Westmor- 
land, and Furness. 

In Nidderdale a reean is a strip that was formerly left unploughed 
round a ploughed field. The farmers used to allow the men who 
worked for them to graze their cows upon them during the winter. 
Since the introduction, however, of the steam plough, they plough 
much closer to the hedge, and the reeans are not now left. The reean 
was the only kind of boundary which it was practicable for the 
occupiers of adjoining land to make where there were no stones, and 
few labourers. The Danes brought the institution into these dales 
with them, as they did to Normandy, where I believe they are still 
in use. In Wharfedale, Coverdale, and Wensleydale, and in the 
slopes of the hills to the east of Nidderdale, the country is covered 
with little steps like terraces called reins, pronounced reeans. The 
sides of the limestone slopes of Wharfedale are covered with them, 
each being twenty or thirty or more yards long, and two or three 
yards wide, and though they almost always there run horizontally, 
yet occasionally they lay up and down. These reins lay on land that 
belonged to the village communities of the dale, and each man 
in the village had one ; one man held a rein for three years when he 
exchanged it for another. With the decline of agriculture, and the 
increase of grazing, consequent upon the departure of manufacturing, 
advantage was taken of the enclosure Act of 1836, which gave 
power to enclose without a special Act open and arable fields and 
pasture lands, by commissioners with consent of seven-eighths in 
number, and value. Long stone fences were built and the reins 
remained as a monument of a bygone age, and this was followed by 
a rapid depopulation of the dales. 

Smith (Walks in Weardale p. 107), shows that the same 
name rein is found, and the same system was formerly 
practised in the county of Durham. 


I believe the system of runrigg once known in Scot- 
land, by which alternate ridges belonged to different 
individuals, had a similar origin. It was put an end 
to by enactment in 1695. This system of runrigg is, I 
believe, still in some measure retained in that portion of 
Scotland which is most allied to Norway and Denmark in 
customs and dialect, namely the Shetland Islands. The 
mode in which until comparatively recently, not only many 
words, but even the language, literature, and customs of 
the old Norsemen were retained in the Shetland Islands, 
will be very evident to anyone who has read the " Pirate " 
of Sir Walter Scott, together with its accompanying 
notes. The following passage occurs in the 2nd chapter 
of that work : — " At this time the old Norwegian Sagas 
were much remembered and often rehearsed by the fisher- 
men, who still preserved amongst themselves the ancient 
Norse tongue which had been the speech of their fore- 
fathers ". 

The information respecting rccans in our own neigh- 
bourhood has been collected by me from personal inquiries 
from farmers and others, and I cannot find that any paper 
or work bearing upon the subject in Cumberland, Westmor- 
land, or Furness, has yet been published ; I think, there- 
fore, much more information may yet be obtained, and 
as the object of this paper is as much to get as to give 
information, I should be very glad to know anything 
further about reeans that those interested in them would 
kindly communicate. 


Art. XXXV. Some Illustrations of Home Life in Lonsdale 
North of the Sands, in the lyth and iSth centuries. By 
John Fell, Dane Ghyll, 

Read at Lancaster, Sept. 18th, 1890. 

IONSDALE north of the Sands is a large district, 
J belonging to the county Palatine of Lancaster, and 
entirely severed from the main body of the county by 
Morecambe Bay. Until the present century, the ordinary 
traveller crossed the treacherous sands of this great es- 
tuary to reach the northern hundred of Lancashire. 
With the estuary of the Duddon to the north, and the 
watershed boundaries between Cumberland and West- 
morland, Lonsdale North of the Sands, or North Lons- 
dale as it is also called, may be described as an island, 
and its inhabitants, until the railway connected it with 
the main body of the country, as an insular people. Up 
to a comparatively recent date, it may be said that the 
same families had been settled in the district from time 
immemorial. A stranger was promptly detected, and with- 
out much courtesy made aware that he was regarded in the 
local phraseology as an " offcome ". 

From a very ancient period, North Lonsdale lias had 
two great internal divisions in the districts, known as 
Furness and Cartmel. Furness became the property 
chiefly of the Cistercian Abbey of St. Mary, founded 
in 1127 A.D. The small priory of Conishead had some 
possesions also, as well as the knightly families, said 
to have been five in number, who followed or were in 
possession of their lands at the Conquest. The Cartmel 
portion of North Lonsdale, by the gift of William 
Mareshall, became " with the manor and all the lands " 
the property of an Augustinian priory, which he foun- 
ded. Of the five knightly families I am not aware that 



more than two survive. The Penningtcns, who were 
originally of Pennington near Ulverston, and who still hold 
the manor, of Pennington, have been long settled at Mun- 
caster Castle in Cumberland. The Le Flemings, whose 
lands were reserved in the grant, of Stephen, of the Furness 
possessions of the Abbey of St. Mary, retain some of their 
North Lonsdale property. All the other descendants of 
these knightly families have passed away from local 
knowledge, although the ancient house of Kirkby of 
Kirkby had a representative within living memory. The 
overwhelming power of the great religious houses in 
Furness and Cartmel, had undoubtedly a marked effect 
upon the social life and developement of these districts. 
Except the castles of Gleaston and Piel, there are no re- 
mains of important medieval strongholds prior to the 
dissolution, and the towers of Broughton and Wrays- 
holme alone represent anything of the nature of fortified 
mansions. With one or two exceptions the bulk of the 
older houses of the district, dating back beyond the 17th 
century, are such as the means of a substantial yeomanry 
could afford, living under the indulgent feudalism of the 
Abbots and Priors, who held the freehold of their lands. 
It is beyond the range of my research, to attempt any 
description of the homes of the working class at this 
period, or even in the 17th and 18th centuries. There 
are few cottages remaining unaltered of these dates, 
and such as may claim to be even one century old are 
small, and in their original condition would be deemed 
by the sanitary authorities of this day, unfit for habitation. 
It is within my own traditional knowledge that the prin- 
cipal street of the important and ancient market town, 
Ulverston, consisted mainly of houses of one storv in 
height with thatched roofs. I have not found in the 
family accounts I have examined, any record of rent for 
labourers' dwellings, and looking to the low rates of wages, 
and the general dependency of the poor, it is possibly a 



correct inference that no charge in the form of a rent in 
money, was made for the occupation of such dwellings 
as were provided for them, some return being made in 
labour. It was not until after the dissolution of the 
monasteries, that the changes gradually arose which gave 
wealth and importance to the present leading families of 
North Lonsdale. They had lived as the feudal tenants 
of the Abbots and Priors, and only after the dissolution 
obtained a more independent position, constituting the 
class known as yeomen or statesmen. I find in wills of 
the 17th century, that " yeoman " is the common descrip- 
tion of testators, and that of '*' esquire " rare. Most of 
their holdings had probably been in their occupation from 
remote periods, and from these ancient occupiers many an 
honorable descent can be traced. Except the knightly 
families, whose lands had been gradually diminished or 
absorbed, there appear to have been few large landowners 
down to the 17th century, and until that date the home 
life of these districts would be in an exceedingly primitive 
and simple condition. It has proved by no means an 
easy task to penetrate its "arcana", owing to a reluc- 
tance, not unnatural, to open up family histories, to which 
these later and more ambitious days, present so great a 
contrast. To ask for the perusal of wills, settlements, or 
other documents of title, although avowedly for antiqua- 
rian research, and with no reference to any question of 
title, seems to create undue apprehension and objection. 
Letters unhappily have been so generally destroyed, that 
it is not an easy task to secure any facts illustrating the 
home life of our thrifty ancestors. They were princi- 
pally employed in agriculture, the gentry occupying 
and cultivating considerable tracts of their estates, which 
purchase or matrimonial alliances had from time to time 
added to their " yeoman " inheritances. There were few 
roads and I should doubt if many of them were practi- 
cable for vehicles on wheels, even until the middle of the 



r8th century. I have not found in any wills or in the 
inventoriesof personal estates, to which I have hadacccess, 
any mention of carriages of any kind : items such as the 
following indicate the mode of travelling : — 

£ s- d. 

* Date 1679. Item : his purse aparell and Riding Geare. 05 00 00 
fDatei6h8. Imprimis his purse apparell and Riding Geare 08 10 00 
I I give and bequeath unto William Chapman of Bouth, 

Gentleman, my brother-in-law, one saddle-housin of 

seale skin. 

The inventories of personal estates I am quoting, contain 
considerable details of farming, both of stock and ap- 
pliances, but no allusion is made to anything of the 
nature of a cart. 

£ s. d. 

Date 1679. Item Beevse, sheepe and horses. 28 05 00 

It. Bigge oats, peys, beans, straw, ffewell, 

manures and poultrie .... 15 02 00 

Date 1688. Item Husbandry geare of all sorts, ffewell 

and manure 04 04 04 

Item corne, hay, and straw, bease, horses 

and sheepe 53 10 00 

If wheeled vehicles were in use in the 17th and early part 
of the 18th centuries they are seldom mentioned, and 
were of a primitive character, the wheels being solid and 
the axle fixed to them, and it is certain that in the two 
old inventories I have quoted, with entries affecting 
farming, there is no enumeration of a cart. The condition 
of the roads is described in the Hawkshead Parish Regi- 
ster, of 1679, recording the effects of a thunderstorm upon 

The water did so furiously run downe the highways, and made such 
deep holes and ditches in them that att severall places neither horses 
norfoote coulde pass. 

* Inventory of Personal estate of Andrew Fell, of Dalton Gate Ulvcrston. 
t Inventory of Personal estate of John Fell, of Dalton Gate, Ulverston. 
X Will of John Fell, of Dalton Gate, Ulverston, 1723. 



If the roads of North Lonsdale and its means of trans- 
port were in so primitive a condition in the 17th century, 
how were its inhabitants provided for in their education, 
food, home comforts, investments, and other incidents of 
their lives. I apprehend that the thin population was 
more or less congregated at the principal centres, such 
as Ulverston, Dalton, Hawkshead, Cartmel, and other 
towns or hamlets. Some provision for education seems 
to have existed within a feasible range of each of these 
centres. I am not clear that the schools were available 
for the poorest class, and there were many persons even 
of a better class, who did not at all events learn to write, 
as is frequently in evidence by the cross made in pre- 
ference to a signature to documents, but a large number 
of the middle class clearly received fair education, as 
is proved by their handwriting.* Of the date of 1598 A.D., 
there is an entry 

A true and perfect Kalendar of all monies belonging to the Gramar 
Scole att Cartmell. 

And in A.D. 1624, a room was purchased for a " Publicke 
School house", the school having been in the church 
prior to this date. It is not an uninteresting piece of evi- 
dence of the slow progress of the district that the " publike 
schoole house " of 1624, was the school house of the 
parish for 166 years. At Hawkshead Archbishop Sandys 
had made provision for the education of the neighbour- 
hood from which he sprang, and in which his family had 
increased their possessions after the dissolution, but it 
seems clear that so important a town as Ulverston did 
not possess any endowed school, until after the death 
of Judge Fell, in 1658. In a record of the first meeting 
of the inhabitants of the " town and hamlet " of Ulverston, 
held for the purpose of appointing trustees to give effect 

* Stockdale's Annals of Cartmel. 



to Judge Fell's bequest, of the sixteen leading inhabitants 
whose names are appended to it, only eight sign their 
names.* The names are Andrew ffell, John Mount, 
John Ashburner, Will 111 Dobsonn, John Corker, Luke 
Benson, Rob. (?) Strickland, George Mount, Will m Kirkby, 
Ric. Collysone, Richard Atkinson, Will m Woodburne, 
Thomas Cockin, Thomas Elithorne, Thos. Collinsonn, 
Will 111 Addyson. 

In the will of Curwen Rawlinson, of Cark near Cart- 
mel, dated 1689, the following bequest affords evidence 
of some private tuition in leading families : — 

Item I doe give unto Mr. James Ffenton and to Mr. Lodge, my 
sonnes schoolmaster the sume of ffive pounds apeace. 

The cost of sending children to school seems to have been 
in proportion to the means of the age. The following 
entry has been extracted from the " Olde Churche Booke 
of Cartmell.t 

1664, June 20. It is ordered by the consent of the xxiiiitie and 
others of the parishes that Mr. Atkinson, Schoolmaister of Cartmel, 
shall have xxl. per Annum for teaching schoole and that every 
grammarian shall paye vid. per quarter, and every pettie (sic) iiiid: 
and if any parte thereof remayne from paying Mr. Akinson, the same 
shall remaine towards the ushers wages, and that noe poore people be 
charged towards the payment thereof. 

How the usher fared from the balance surviving Mr. 
Atkinson's requirements is not on record. There can be 
little doubt that these local schools were mixed schools, 
boys and girls being educated together, and both " gentle 
and simple" attending the same school. Few even of the 
gentry possessed the means to send their children to 

* Chronicles of the Town and Churcli of Ulverston, by Canon Bardsley p. Gy. 
I Mr. Stockdale's Annals of Cartmel. 



distant schools.* I find in an old account book of the 
Taylors' of Finsthwaite a curious story. 

June nth, 1712. Moneys disbursed of William Taylor's accompt. 

£ b. d. 

Imprs. for Boarding at School 01 10 00 

Imprs. Mrs. Wages .... 00 05 00 

Imprs. Boarding at School 01 01 06 

Imprs. Mrs. Wages .... 00 05 00 

Imprs. A hatt ..... 00 02 00 

In accounts in the possesion of Miss Machell of Penny 
Bridge, of the date 1747, there is an entry " Pd. Mr. 
Stoop for son and Isaac learning £0 7s. 6d." In my 
" grandfathers pockett book ", there is a note : — 

N.B. Schooling. They tell me there are masters (some where near 
Borrowbridge, or Penrith), who will board, school, and clothe boys 
for £10 P.A. 

And among papers at Graythwaite I found the following 
school prospectus : — 

At Castley near Sedbergh notice of opening an academy, R. Willan, 
M.D., 1785, Youth boarded and educated in the manner described 
at fourteen pounds per annum. Entrance one guinea.t 

Of the school life of girls I have gathered little informa- 
tion, and not much seems attainable from such documents 
or accounts as I have perused. Records of payments for 
instruction in the accomplishment of dancing occur, such 

•Accounts in possession of Mr. Pedder of Finsthwaite, the present representa- 
tive of the Taylor family. 

1 1 have found an amusing letter from a school boy, Robert Atkinson of 
Dalton, dated Feb. nth, 17S1, which implies much care and economy was ex- 
ercised by parties in the clothing of their sons at school. " Honorad Mother, I 
sit down to inform you I like Lancaster veiry well and return you thanks for 
the shirt you sent me and I shall want nothing more at present, but my Green 
Coat is so run up that I cannot get it of and on myself". 



£ *. d. 
Mr. Sargean Dancing Master for 10 wks. dancing for Kitty 0150 
Pd. Dancing Master for my girls learning o 12 o 

But of the general instruction and home life of girls 
information is obscure. 

In the wills I have examined, bequests of books seldom 
occur, and the literature of the inhabitants of North 
Lonsdale evidently had a very narrow range. Intellectual 
variety would be exceedingly limited. There were no 
newspapers, and the cost of posting letters was con- 
siderable, and their transit probably slow and irregular, 
so that the interchange of thought in social life, would 
bear much on the traditions of the past and on the local 
events occurring from day to day. In some old accounts 
I have examined the following are the principal illustra- 
tions of any expenditure upon books : — 

£ * d. 
* Feb. 21, 1717. Have bought of Thomas Hall for Chappel 
Blackwell second hand in eight voloms 


1 1723. Blackmore's Poems for Ebenezer 

I 1737. Pd. for Pope's Poems in 3 vols 

for Cyrus travels 

1740. Pd. for Seneca's Morals 

Pd. for works bought in the auction at Cartmell 
being part of the Library of the late Mr. Thomp- 
son vicar of the place 4 12 6 

If education and literature were in a backward condition, 
that of the labouring poor was probably worse. Mr. 
Stockdale, in his Annals of Cartmel, states A.D. 1600, 
that " twopence would hire a labourer for a whole day " # 
This was the case until the 18th century had well ad- 
vanced. So far as the records of the office of the Clerk of 

* Accounts of the Taylors' of Finsthwaite, in possession of Mr. Pedder. 

t Broughton Tower Accounts. 

X Accounts in possession of Miss Machell, of Penny Bridge, 











the Peace for Lancashire have been examined, orders for 
regulating the wages in North Lonsdale emanating from 
Quarter Sessions have not been found, but " twopence 
per day " did not apply to artisans : — as an illustration : — 

It is ordered and agreed that the free masons shall flaggc the 
Churche anewe and have for every daye xiid. apiece, and iod. a daye 
for Lawrence Cooper and Thos Hunter; 

Again, 1641, A.D., 

Item for George Copper for walling up a windowe in the steeple viiid.* 

In an old account book of the Taylors' of Finsthwaite, 
commencing in 1712, I find many records of wages which 
seem to have ranged from 3d. to 6d. per day :— 

Item 5 days mowing 

Shering 3 days 

6 days salving 
1728. By weaving a flanel webb being 28 yds. at 2s. 2d. 

per yard* 
1744. Hired my Husbandman for 1744 for f 

Hired Chs. Walker for a year for 

As additional illustrations of the low value of labour I 

may mention the following : — 

£ s. d. 
1738, March 28. Agreed with Jas. Pennington and Isaac 

Wilson for getting 500 carts of stones at one penny p r 

cart but I am to have one over for each score. 
Oct. 8, 1743. Pel. William Birkett for delving peats 103 

carts at 3d. per score o 15 5^ 

To Win. Holme for leading 166 carts at 3d. per cart 226 

But if labour had a low value provisions were in 
proportion, meat and poultry being very cheap at the 
period of which I am writing : * — 

£ *. d- 
11712. 5 Lams .... o 10 c 

1722. Pd. William Cowherd 1 qr. of veall o on 

* Stockdale'sjAnnals of Cartmel 

t Accounts of Taylors' of Finsthwaite. 













































Pd. William Walker \ a sheep 
Bout a side of Beef at Ull'ston 

* 1723. Two quarters of Lamb Hawkshead 

A quarter of Mutton, Ulverston 

A piece of beef 13 pounds • 

Pd. Bride for 6 Chickens @ 3+ 
To Bride for 7 ducks @ 4^ 

To Bride for 6 Geese @ 7 a peice 

To Bride for 4 ducks more 

Two loaves 

A loaf of Bread 

Three rye loaves and white loaves 

The condition and remuneration of those employed in 
domestic service has many illustrations in the documents 
of North Lonsdale families. In the interesting book upon 
" Social Life in the reign of Queen Annie," Vol. I, p. 77, 
it is said of servants : — 

As a rule they were treated like dogs by their masters, and were 
caned mercilessly for any trivial faults. 

There may have been harsh masters and mistresses in 
North Lonsdale in the 17th and 18th centuries, but the 
bequests so common in wills of the period indicate a good 
and kind feeling to have existed in the households of 
leading families. In the will of Robert Curwen of Cark- 
in-Cartmel, dated 1649, he directs that 

My household servants be kept at my house with meat and drink 
and wages for halfe one yeare after my decease for tyme to provide 
for themselves other services. 

Robert Rawlinson of Cark, in 1665, leaves 

Ten shillings to everie of my servants. 

And makes the curious bequest : — 

All the rest of my cloathes not being blacke to be divided amongst my 
men serv'ts. 

* Hroughton Tower Accounts. 



John ffcll of Dalton Gate, Ulverston, in his will dated 
16S7, directs : — 

Alsoe I give to my three servants Edward Ffisher, Mary Long, and 
Margaret Elotson each ten shillings and unto my servant John Penny 
ffive shillings. 

Elizabeth Rawlinson the wife of Cunven Rawlinson of 
Carke, in her will dated 1691, makes the following be- 
quest : — 

Item I give to ye two servant maides now at Carke Hall and Thomas 
Shackerley five pounds equally amongst them share and share alike. 

Instances could be multiplied of this type of kindly 
thoughtfulnes for domestic servants by those whom they 
had served. Their wages in the 17th century are not 
mentioned in any document to which I have had access. 
In a letter of Sir Thomas Lowther written to his steward 
at Holker Hall, dated March 3rd, 1726, he gives the in- 
struction : — 

See the maid servants weed the gardens and all be employed. 

And in July 8, 1727, he writes : — 

I hope Polly the chambermaid will take care to have the chambers 
very clean against we come down, and our own bed should be laid in 
by some body to air it. 

In a letter from the steward, who had been remonstrated 
with as to the employment of the maids in weeding the 
garden, he replies : — 

The maids have been taken up with spinning and making twelve 
pairs of coarse sheets for servants, which Madame Preston thought 
it proper to have done, so that they have not weeded much. 

In another letter in 1726 Sir Thomas Lowther urges ; — 

The maids in the house I hope weed the gardens as they have nothing 
else to do which will spare hiring of weeders, and I daresay you 
will take care to see that the other servants are not kept idle. 



In 1744 I find the following entries in some accounts 
which afford evidence that female servants received but a 
modest remuneration : — 

£ s. d. 

Hired Jane children's maid for a year for 2 15 o 

Hired servant Agnes the housemaid for a year for the sum 

of 250 

It seems to have been customary to give an earnest at the 

£ s. d. 

1741. Given Servant girl Margt. Grey w 11 hired her as 
earnest and in part of her wages w h are to be forty- 
five shillings the year and if her vails do not make the 
same out Three Pounds I'm to make it so 010 

How the master and maid compared notes as to the 
amount of her " vails " there is no record. 

Before leaving the subject of the labouring poor or 
attempting any conjecture as to their condition in old age, 
it should not be forgotten that wills of the 17th and 18th 
centuries frequently contain bequests to the poor of the 
neighbourhood in which the testator lived. There was 
through the overseer some public relief, but this was much 
aided by charitable gifts. Mr Stockdale in the Annals of 
Cartmel has many illustrations of these gifts. 

Jan. 12, 171 1. The yearly interest ofy e legacies given to y 6 use of 
y e poore within y e lower end of Holker Township. 

Which in the account he cites had an income of £3 10s 4d. 

Poor pentioners in anno 1723, Thomas Casson Overseer. Pentioners 
in Lower Holker at May-day 1746. Pentioners in Lower Holker 
May 28th, 1759. 

The names of the recipients of charity follow these head- 
ings. Money was also left for the purpose of aiding poor 
apprentices, — the kind and charitable tendencies of those 
who were in good circumstances being frequently dis- 


played in bequests. Will of William Penny Elder, dated 

Item I give and bequeathe unto the poore of Coulton Baylewick and 
Egton and Newland the Sume of Tenne pounds to be reserved for 
ever for the said use and the yearly Interest and Benefitt of the same. 
That my sup'visors shall have full power to dispose of the said Tenne 
pounds and shall also distribute and divide the yearly profit of the 
said tenn pounds every Good Ffriday yearly at Coulton Church 
amongst the poore. 

The will of Robert Rawlinson of Cark, dated 1665, pos- 
sessing property as had in several townships, serves as 
an illustration of gifts to the poore. 

Ffirst I give to the poore of the lower end of Holker township three 
pounds the upper end fforty shillings, to the poore of the lower end 
of Allithwaite twentie shillings, the poore about Hampsfell and 
Broughton fforty shillings, about Colton in Ffurness Fells fforty 
shillings, and about Crosby Ravensworth in Westm'eland fforty 

In most wills however of the period, the legacy to the 
poor is entrusted to the overseers, or to the supervisors of 
the estate. John ffell, 1687, leaves a bequest 

Also it is my minde and I give unto my supervisors hereafter nomi- 
nated the sum of fforty shillings to be by them disposed of unto ye 
poore of ye Towne and Hamlet of Ulverstone as they think meet. 

Having attempted to sketch the means of education, 

and the current condition of the working classes in the 17th 

and 18th centuries, it is not uninteresting now to turn to 

the home life of the gentry : — With few exceptions their 

houses have been much altered within the past 100 years 

that it is difficult to imagine the simplicity of their interiors 

and surroundings. The men when disengaged from their 

attention to the home farm, entered into the sporting, which 

moors, woods, open country, and rivers afforded. I find 

entries in accounts such as 



Lead Shot 8 lbs 
1738. Two fishing rods 

For a pair of Shooting Shoes " := 










A limited number of the gentry were in the Commission 
of the Peace for the county, but there is little to indicate 
much demand for their frequent services. An old order 
not dated, as to the constitution of the " Fair and Market " 
of Broughton-in-Furness contains the following notice, 
which indicates that precautions for preserving the peace 
were necessary : — 

Also that no manner of persons within this fair or market do bear 
Bill, Battleax or any prohibited weapons, but such as be appointed 
by the lord or lady or by their officers to keep the Fair or Market upon 
forfeiture of all such weapons and further imprisonment of their 

But as evidence that the justices of the peace were not 
likely to be called upon for regular sessions, and the con- 
sequent demand upon their time, I may quote the following 
copy of the constable's report of the large district of 
Colton, as to its criminal condition : — 

March 20th, 1732, Lanch 1 ' 6 . In answer to y r articles sent to us by 
y r High Constable we whose names are subscribed do answer and 
present. t 
First that no felonies have been committed in our Contablewick since 

your last assizes. 
Item that no vagabonds have been apprehended. 
Item watch when req d duly kept. 
Item no Popish recusants. 

Item no decay of Houses, Tillage is well performed. 
Item no unlicensed Maltsters. 
Item no unlicensed Alehouses. 
Item Alehouse keepers keep good order 
Item no Engrossers Forestalled or Rogrators. 

*Mrs. Sawrey-Cookson's papers. Broughton Tower, 
t Papers of the Taylors of Finsthwaite. 



Item our Highways in good repair. 

Item our Poor well provided for 

Item no common Drunkards or Swearers. 

(Clement Taylor) C.T. ] ~ r p 

Hunting occupies a leading place in the sports of North 
Lonsdale.* There are frequent allusions to this sport 
in accounts and letters, such as — 

£ b. d. 

1745. Spent at Ulverston when fox hunting two nights o 11 6 

1746. Given hunters to drink 026 

,, Spent at Ulverston Mayor Hunt 096 

Among the papers of the Rawlinsons of Graythwaite I 
found the following letter on this subject, dated — 

1763. I find by thine you have had fox hunts going forward as well 
as we. We've had three chases. At one of 'em w'ch was the finest 
to be sure all the gent m had the Pleasure to get heartilly drunk and 
and many of them returned satisfied indeed with their diversion. 

Cards and cockfighting helped also the weary hours. 
Many entries exist in accounts as to both. Such as — 

1740. nth Nov. Won at cards at Newby Bridge 

,, Nov. 14. Lost at cards 

,, ,, 24. Won at cards at Cartmel Club 

1746. Won at cards 

,, Spent at Bouth cockfight 

,, P d Mr. Richardson for the cocks and feeding o 

In a district where there were no banks, no manufac- 
tures beyond the home weaving of cloth or household 
linen, and which during the 17th and a considerable part 

* Before the days of Inclosures in High Furness, the hill country was quite 
open and feasible for a horseman who was acquainted with it. The coppice 
woods, the value of which was so much enhanced latterly by the demand for 
hoops, bobbins, and charcoal, were only partially fenced in the iSth century, 
and furnished a lair for many a hard and wily fox ; while in Low Furness 
considerable tracts were practically in the condition of the " Downs " of 
southern England, and no doubt afforded excellent ground for hunters both on 
horseback and on foot in the pursuit of foxes and hares. 


£ b. 


O 2 




..... O I 



of the 18th century was destitute of trading activity and 
enterprise, it is difficult to understand how the cadets of 
the leading families found occupation. There were, 
doubtless, some professional men, such as clergymen, 
lawyers, and doctors, but they must have been much 
scattered and poorly paid — especially the clergy, whose 
stipends were augmented by farming and teaching schools, 
even till the close of the 18th century. The larger towns 
and hamlets possessed shops at which articles were sold, 
which were beyond the range of home production. In 
Ulverston there were many of these old shops, — quaint 
gabled buildings standing out towards the street on 
pillars, beneath which neighbours sheltered and gossiped ; 
while on market days those projections were filled with 
such goods as would tempt the gentry and yeomanry to 
open their purse strings. In the will of Andrew ffell, of 
Daltongate, Ulverston, I find the following bequest : — 

First I give unto my two sonns John ffell and Thomas ffell my land 
both ffree and lease land whatsoever and all my housing barnes 
stables shoppes and all my mortgages whatsoever mosses or mosse 
now and unto them two and their heirs forever. 

The persons who kept these shops were probably the only 
traders in North Lonsdale in the 17th and early part of 
the 18th century ; and in instances where the younger 
sons of the gentry and yeomanry were compelled to seek 
employment, they had no local opportunity of entering 
trade except through the shops of the neighbouring 
towns. It is said (King and Commonwealth p. 265, of 
the 17th century) — 

The ordinary country gentleman held land by Knights' service of 
some superior lord or the crown. He lived the life of a farmer, 
looking after his corn, pigs, and sheep. He seldom left his county, 
and a journey to London would be a leading event of his life 
Besides cockfighting and bullbaiting, hunting was his chief amuse- 
ment. His table was plentifully supplied, and he was generally 
hospitable to his poorer neighbours. In winter time, as sheep and 



cattle could not be fattened (owing to clover and turnips not being 
grown until the beginning of the iSth century), his fare consisted 
mainly of salted meat, fish, wild fowl, and rabbits. If he was justice 
of the peace, he had half the business of the parish on his hands. 
The eldest son inherited his father's land : the younger became 
merchants, lawyers, sailors, and clergymen. 

In dress the ladies and gentlemen followed the fash- 
ions of the day as they spread northward from 
London. Family portraits, which are not numerous, 
imply the knowledge and use of the fashionable costumes 
of the period ; but in ordinary daily life I apprehend that 
their garments were of the home manufactured linen and 
woollen cloths. Everything imported was expensive. 

£ s. d. 

1723. For 3 yds. of Muslin for 4 neck-Cloth for Margy. 

at 6s. per yd. .... ... 0180 

„ Pd. for 4 Diaper Night Caps and 2 velvet Stock 

bought pr. M. Washington for Stranger 063 

,, A pair of Stockings for Margary 030 

„ Pd. Sister Bewley for 24^ of fine Cloth at 35s. per 

per yard 3 13 6 

,, Paid her more for 26 yards of Linnen at 2s. 6d. p. 

yard* • 3 5o 

1740. A velvet Robe for my wife 0186 

,, 5 yds. Linen Cloath @ 3s. 6d. 0176 

1741. 4 pr. of Stockings 120 

1743. For 23^ yds. Holland @ 33. gd. 4 8 i£ 

,, For Stockings 1 Pair 096 

1748. For a pr. of Stays for my Wifef 770 

Bequests of clothing are often particularized in wills. In 
1665 Robert Rawlinson of Carke bequeaths 

To my sonne Curwen my best suite and Cloake of blacke my 
brother Hulton my vest of colored or mingled colored Cloth. 

In the will of Mrs. Jennett ffell, of Dalton Gate, Ul- 
verston, dated 1685, her bequests in clothing are detailed 
with some minuteness : — 

* Broughton Tower Accounts, 
f Miss Machcll's Accounts. 



Item I doe give unto Ellin my daughter-in-law and Jannett my gran- 
child two of my best Coates and to Jennet my best appron 
and Cappe. 

Item I doe give unto Ann Chandlehouse my blew Coat and my bodice 
and my ould day appron and one half of my smockes. 

Item I doe give unto Margaret Chandlehouse my other Coate and 
y e remainder of my smockes and my Lin. appron and all my 
workt linning. 

Item I doe give unto Margaret Highe widdow my gloves and my ould 

The following list is preserved of the clothes of Mr. 
James Maychelle : — 

1726. Hats 2 
Coats 3 
Vests 3 
Breaches 3 

A Gown A great Coat. 
Stockings 3 
Shoes 3 1 old. 
Shirts 10 Stock in all 20 
Handkerchiefs 3 Wiggs 2 

The gentlemen evidently followed the fashions of the day 
in the adoption of wigs — 

£ s. d. 

1723. Pd. Lanc re Post for bringing a wigg* 004 

J739' M r » Crosfield in full for a wigg 500 

1741. Pd. Rowland Lickborrow for his son's hair being for 

my son's wigt 076 

It is said of the wig of Mr. Rawlinson, of Cark Hall, that 

Its powder was scented with ambergris musk and violet orris root 
rose bergamot orange flowers and jessamine and it was of different 

At which conclusion we of these later days can express no 
surprise. A wig of this period is said to have contained 

* Broughton Tower Accounts, 
f Miss.Machell's Accounts. 


a pound of hair and two pounds of powder. Wigs ceased 
to be the fashion after the middle of the 18th centurv 
or earlier, and were followed by powdered hair and the 
pigtail, which remained in use among oldfashioned gentle- 
men until the 19th century had fairly opened. The later 
fashion seemed to involve even more trouble than the wig, 
as no one could dress his own hair or tie the pigtail. 
Mixed with the details of old accounts, and in the 
inventories of personal estate, items concerning stock and 
agricultural produce are common : — 

Ac 1 of Sheep Taken of the farm at Plumgreen at the above 25th day 
of March 1724 — 17 Wedd 3 23 Ews 29 hoggs and at Mich : 
20 more hoggs* 
1734. Sold a Calf for 2s. 6d. 
,, Sold a Red Cow for 

Rec d a Pair of Oxen priee is 
„ Sold 2 St of Wool at 
ijoS. Rec d for a pair of Oxen sold at Dalton 
Sold a Beef Cow 

,, Sold 21 Ewes 

„ B fc a horse for 

j„26. P d Mr. Singleton in full for my Mare had of him t 

Family papers of Mr. Arthur Benson Dickson, of Abbots 
Reading, which are full of interesting facts connected 
with the 18th century, furnish some lists of the rise in 
prices, which became high in the latter part of the century. 
The following is a list, dated 1779 :— 

Grain is about the prices as under in Liverp 1 — 

Wheat 10s. for 701b. Potatoes 3s. for 36 qts. 

Barley 5s. 6d. for 60 lb. Tick Beans 48s. to 50s. for 32 qts. 

Irish Oats 4s. 6d. for 45 lb. Hay 2s. 6d. per stone 20 lbs. 

Oatmeal 34s. for 340 lb. Straw about is. for 20 lb. 

Beef 7d. per lb Salmon iod. per lb. 

Mutton yd. yer lb. Very little good Lamb. 

• Papers of Taylors of Finsthwaite. 
f Miss Machell's Accounts. 























I should doubt if there was anyone in North Lonsdale 
in the 17th or 18th centuries in the possession of wealth. 
The habits of thrift were, however, so marked as com- 
pared with modern notions, that it is not improbable that 
our ancestors were with fewer luxuries leading lives of 
affluence and comfort. The position of the gentry clar.s 
was well defined and carefully guarded, diminishing, 
I should hope, the competition in social life which distin- 
guishes the present era. 

The life of the ladies of each household is not easy to 
ascertain in the absence of family letters or records of it. 
The traditions of grandmothers and great grandmothers 
are all favourable to their virtues and resources as house- 
keepers. I cannot doubt that they excelled in the careful 
management of the plenteous living of the period. Ordi- 
nary food was cheap, but it has been written that the art 
of cooking was to see that — 

It was well peppered and salted and swimming with butter. 

In an old account book of the Taylors of Finsthwaite I 
find some interesting particulars of the cost of potted 
char — 

Feb 9th 173: act of money laid out for bro. William Taylor 
as follows * 

Imprs. two Charr pots 

D° 4 doz of Charrs at 5s per Doz 

Seasoning for the same Mace 1 oz qr 

Clovs 1 & £ 

Sinom 1 & \ 

Carr e to Daventry at 2d per lb w. 2glb 

Each item of household expenditure has been entered 
with great care in the accounts which have survived the 

'Appendix IV. 



s. d. 

1 3 


1 10 


1 1 



1 1 





ruthless destruction so common on the part of executors 
and trustees, but they are not generally in the hand- 
writing of the lady of the house. 

Daughters, though getting a share ol what education there was, for 
all that often could barely read and write, but were brought up to be 
good house-wives — to manage a dairy, to bake, to brew, to distil 
water from flowers and plants. (King and Commonwealth, p. 266, 
17th Century). 

I am inclined to think that no large store of anything 
was kept as is indicated by such entries as follow : — 

£ s. d. 

1723. Two loaves 3d. Cherries 4 pounds 6d 029 

,, To M. Washington for Sugar 3lbs to preserve 

,, For ^ pound of Bohea Tea 

,, A pound of Sugar 5d yeast 2d :: 

1741. One pound Green Tea 
,, One Do of Bohea 

8 Tea Cups & Sawcersf 

Wine was ordered in small quantities, and probably only 
on the occasion of guests. I find the following entries 
in 1723 :— 

For white wine 

For Rhenish wine 

A Gallon of Wine more 

For a Gall, of Brandy for Bitters 

A Bottle of SackJ 



















For the evidence that there were no large cellars of 
wine there is the following entry : — 

Two Bottles of White Wine when Marg? had Small Pox....^"o 3 o 

In other accounts, dated 1743, the amount of wine 
purchased somewhat exceeds the preceding illustration: — 

* Broughton Tower Papers. 
+ Miss Machell's Accounts. 
% Broughton Tower Papers. 



£ s. d. 

June 16 14 galls 1 pint of White Wine @ 5s. 3 13 7 

Aug 6 14 galls red Port @ 6s ... ...470 

Oct 8 14 galls of White @ 5s.* ... 3 14 

Good beer, probably, entered largely into the success of 
heme hospitality. Small purchases of hops from time to 
time occur in household accounts, but I have found none 
of malt, which was no doubt grown on the demesne lands 
and malted in some local kiln. Oat cake, which was the 
staple bread of North Lonsdale, is rarely mentioned, 
possibly for the same reason — the oats being grown, not 
purchased, and ground into meal at some adjacent mill. 

From the bequests in wills, and from the inventories of 
the period, the furniture of houses implied much sim- 
plicity. Every article practically is particularized, and 
the linen, bedding, and other furniture carefully bequeathed. 
Of the home attire of ladies, their meal hours, their hours 
of visiting, or the manner in which they made their visits, 
I have discovered little in the documents to which I have 
had access. Ladies, however, apart from the management 
and care of their households, occupied much of their time 
in useful work. The spinning wheel was a great resort 
for leisure hours, and there still remain in some families 
examples of linen woven from its products. Needlework, 
of elaborate and beautiful character, bears evidence of 
the home occupation of the ladies of the centuries 
under consideration. Of their married life I have gleaned 
little information ; in fact, so few letters remain that the 
" opportunities " for the daughters of a family are ex- 
tremely obscure. In a letter addressed by Mr. Robert 
Bickerstaff to his cousin, Miss Ellin Hind, of Holmbank, 
Urswick, the following comments are made : — 

* Miss Machell's Accounts. 



Dear Cousin, — I should be glad to heare of your welfare whether 
you are in the land of the living or you are launched into the Ocean 
of Matterimony if the latter I can very well excuse yuur silence— A 
Husband is such a pretty toy for a young ladie and takes up so much 
of their time their is but little houpes for indulgence for any relation 
else tho never so nigh but if you are at your own disposall I should 
be glad of your Company for a while this Summer. 

There were no carriages until the 18th century was far 
advanced, as the roads were not available for them. Even 
in the later part of the 18th century Lord Frederick 
Cavendish could not, after crossing the sands, take his 
carriage over the road existing from the shore of More- 
cambe Bay at Kent's Bank to Holker. I find in an 
account of 1760 an entry — 

For a Pillion £3 us. 6d. 

Travelling was so expensive, and so much involved in 
inconvenience and risk, that few persons went far from 
home except on matters of business. Traditional tales 
imply that ladies rarely went to London. An old lady, 
born Miss Irton, of Irton Hall, in Cumberland, told me 
she remembered travelling in the latter part of the 18th 
century to London, her father and mother taking their 
own carriage and horses, Miss Irton and her brother 
accompanying them on horseback — the lady on a pillion, 
the journey occupying upwards of a fortnight. 

In addition to bequests of an ordinary nature, I en- 
countered some of a peculiar character, showing the 
extreme simplicity of manners even in later part of the 
17th century. In the will of William Rownson, of 
Haverthwaite, in Furness fells, dated 1697, he directs 
as follows : — 

I give to my nephew John Rownson of Haverthwaite one heifer 
with calf 

I give to the rest of my brother John Rownson's children of Haver- 
thwaite to every one of these Children on Beast a piece 

I give to every child I am Godfather to a Sheep" 

* Abbotts Reading Papers. 



William Penny, of Penny Bridge, in his will dated 1640, 
has a singular gift — 

Item I give & bequeathe unto every child I am God father untoe one 
shilling within half a year of my decease upon demand by any of 
them at the house I now live in. 

In 1679 I find a record of a family arrangement made by 
Jennet ffell, of Daltongate, Ulverston, with her son John 
ffell, after the death of his father, for her widowhood. 
Under this arrangement she receives £30 in money, with 
an allowance of £15 a year from her son, who also agrees 

To find the said Jennett ffell with meat drink & lodging sufitient for 
a woman of her degree for and during the period of her naturall life. 

Family notes of births and deaths are singularly exact in 
their details. As instances — 

Thomas Rawlinson first born of Wm & Margay born at Graythwaite 

the 4th of 7th month Anno 1689 about or near 12 at night being as 

I think the 4th day of week. 

John Rawlinson 4th son of William & Margay was born on the nth 

of the 12th mo : It being the 5th day of the weeke & about daye 

going or the disapearing of light in our horizon. 

Esther ffell daughter of John & Bridget ffell was born at Ulverstone 

Augt 27th 1742 at 2 o'clock in the morning & Baptized September 

the 25th following bhe died May 10th, 1744 at one oClock in the 

morning & was interr'd the 12th. 

During the 17th, and some part of the 18th century, 
persons of distinction, and also many of the poor, appear 
to have been interred within the Parish Church. The 
interment of Thomas Fell — * 

One of y 9 Judges for North Wales Chauncellor of y° Dutchy and 
Commissioner for the Seale of the County Palatine of Lancaster 

is recorded as follows : — 

Thomas ffell departed this life abbout eleven a CJock on ffriday in y e 
eveninge within this p'sent year one thousand six hundred fiftie 

*This is George Fox's Judge Fell. — See these Transactions, vol. ix, pp. 398-9. 



and eight & was sepulchred under his Pewe in Ulverstone Church 
upon y e next Lord's day at night followinge beinge the tenth day 
of October Anno p. dicto 165S. 

Jennett ffell, widow of Andrew ffell, of Daltongate/ Ul- 
verston, in her will dated 1685, directs — 

My body to be buried in our Parish Church at Ullverston as neare 
my husbands as possible can be at sight and disposition of my 
friends and relations. 

Curwen Rawlinson, of Carke-in-Cartmel, in his will dated 
August 28th, 1689, makes a similar direction — 

And my body to the ground to be decently buried at the parish 
Church of Cartmell as near my ffather and relations as possible. 

Intramural interments have gradually and wisely ceased, 
and the large gatherings of friends and neighbours at 
funerals are somewhat modified. Within my recollection 
the custom prevailed of carrying the body even for long 
distances to the grave ; and as the concourse of mourners 
approached the church they all joined in singing a Psalm 
suitable to the occasion. I have in my possession many 
lists of persons invited to funerals in the 18th century, 
which have by some fortunate accident escaped the notice 
of trustees and executors, and been thus saved from 
destruction. After the general enumeration of those 
desired to attend the funeral of Miss Mary ffell, there 
follows a list with the heading " Bearers " — 

Miss Atkinson Dalton 

Miss Shaw Lindale 

Miss Latham Duddon Bridge 

Miss Peggy Satterthwaite 

Miss Sarah Law 

Miss Fell Pennington 

Miss Branthwaite 

And finally a separate note — 

Persons as under desired to attend the funeral of Miss Mary ffell on 
Saturday at 10 clock the 5th of June. 



These all dine excepting 
the town hearers. 

The Revd. Dr. Scales 

Kevd. Wrn. Walker & Mrs. Walker 

Mr. and Mrs. Sunderland 

Revd. Dr. Carsvvell 

Mr. and Mrs. Postlethwaite Dalton 

Eliz h Salthouse I 

Mr. and Mrs. Petty Wellhouse \ (t ° e) 

Bryan Christoperson 

James Jackson near Broughton forgot 

Biscuits were given to all at the funeral. 

The wills of the 17th and early part of the 18th century 
afford evidence of the reverential simplicity of the age. 
Their common form of commencement is as follows : — 

In the name of God Amen I A B of in the County of Lancaster 

(Esquire gentleman yeoman or other description) being weake in 
Bodie yet perfect in mindeand memory praised be Almighty God doe 
make this my last Will and testament in manner & forme following : 
ffirst I commit my Soule unto the hands of Almighty God who gave 
it trustinge through the merritts of our Blessed Saviour to have ffree 
pardon & fforgiveness of my sinnes : my bodie I commit to y e Earth 
to bee decently buried accordinge to y e discression of my Executors 
hereafter nominated and as ffor my Temporall Estate it hath pleased 
Almighty God to bestow upon mee it is my minde & will and I 
bequeathe the same as followeth &c &c. 

Except in some old inventories in my possession, I have 
found little to indicate how personal estate at the period 
was invested. No roads, no railways, no canals, and little 
trading enterprize, left few openings for investment of 
savings, and this narrow line is evident from the fol- 
lowing : — 

1679. It : Debts owing to the Deceased 

,, It : Silver spoones and broken money 

„ It : In Money 

„ It: In Bills Bonds & Morgages :;: ... 

* Inventory attached to will of Andrew ffell of Ulverston, also that of John 
ffell's and Jennett ffell's personal estate, and Edward Benson's inventory in 
















It is impossible, however, within the limits of a paper, to 
attempt more than illustrations of the home life of the 
17th and 18th centuiies in so large a district as Lonsdale 
north of the Sands. If the subject could be probed 
deeper, there is undoubtedly material for much extended 
information and development of local history. If I have 
been so fortunate as to create new interest in any feature 
of the past, and to pave the way to a more free disclosure 
of the contents of old documents bearing on its history, 
I shall be fully repaid for the present effort. 


Inventory of John ffells Personal Estate 
January the second 1688. — A true & perfect Inventory of all the 
goods, cattells, chattels rights and creddits that did belonge and 
appertaine unto John ffell of Ulverstone deceased apprized the day 
above said by us whose names are hereunto subscribed : viz — 

Imprimis his purse apparell & riddinge geare 

Item Brasse and Pewther 

Item Goodes in y e Parlour & Kitchen loft ... 

Item Linninge Boards & loose wool 

Item Goodes in the Buttry loft & house loft 

Item Goodes in y e Kitchin with a Cupboard and loose 

Item Meale Malt Butter cheese beefe & groats 
Item Goods in y° Bodiestead of y° house with sacks 

pokes & poultry 03 18 06 

Item Husbandry Geare of all sorts ffewell & Manure 04 04 04 

Item Corne hay & straw bease horses & sheepe 
Item in Gold money & plait 
Item in Sundrie goods 
Item in boards & a Chist 

Item Debt Booke 
































7 1 










Item in Bills bonds & morgages 1046 12 00 

Item in Bonds 0017 00 00 

Totall 1338 15 08 

William Dawson ffunerall Expenses 0016 17 07 

William Fell 

Henry Leathorne Cleane goods ...1321 18 01 

Richard ffell 


Inventory of Jennett ffell's state. 

A true and perfect Inventorie of all the goods Chattells rights 

& Credditts that did belonge or appertaine unto Jennett ffell late of 

Dalton Gate in Ulverston widdow deceased apprized the third day 

of February 1685 by us whose names are hereunder subscribed : 

Imprimis her purse & apparell 

Item one pair of bed stocks & beddinge 

Item (illegible) 
Item one brasse pot 

Item flax & yarne 

Item one Chist & boxe 

Item Money in Chiste 

Item Money due upon Specialty 

Item one silver cupp 

Item Lent money 

Sume total 123 09 00 

Apprizors names — ffunerall Expenses 12 15 00 

William Dawson 
William Leathorne 
Henry Leathorne 






























Edward Benson's Inventory. 
June the 6 1673 A true and p'fect Inventory of all the goods and 
Chattells of Edward Benson of Black-becke in ffurness ffell late 




Imprimis for Clos & Saddle 

Item for beddinge 

Item for Chists 

Item for bed Stocks & table 

Item for a paire of bed stocks 

Item for 2 paire of bedstocks 

Item for bed stocks 

Item for a Cubboard .... 

Item for a flesh pott 

Item for a Wooden Vessell 
Item for Earthen pots 
Item for panns & pots 
Item for brasse fender 
Item formes & Stooles 
Item for a Wheele 
Item for roopes 
Item for Iron Waire .... 
Item for ... . 

Item for lyinge bords 

Item for plancks & od things 
Item for a table 
Item for 2 glasses 

Item for Iron geare 

Item for 3 hives of Bees 

Item for plough &c 

Item for a paire of Oxen 

Item for a paire of Steards 

Item for 4 kind 

Item for 3 Stots 

Item for a horse 

Item for a meare 

Item for a stagge 

Item for saddles & hammes 

Item for Corne in the Grounde 

Item for plowinge & harrowinge, 

Item for sheepe 




















































































Sume Totall .... 43 n 6 
prissors John Walker, George Robinson, Richard Bernes, Will 111 



Account of his Debts. 

For funeral Expenses 




Owing to Edward Leese 




Christr. Geldert 


Elizabeth Robinson 


Leonard Warrine 


James Nally .... 



Will. Petty 



Will. Rownson 




Adam Rawlinson 



Potted char seems even in the 18th century to have been much 
prized, although I fear the seasonable condition of the fish was 
obscured by the seasoning of the cooks of the period. A curious 
letter from the Duke of Montagu has been preserved, dated the 27th 
of January, 1738. :;: Unless char have entirely abandoned their habits 
at the present date, such fish as the Duke begged for would be in the 
worst condition after spawning. The following is a copy of the 
Duke of Montagu's letter to Mr. Atkinson, of Dalton : — 

Mr. Atkinson— 

I received yours of the 1. of this month & also the Pott of Charr 
which you sent by that days Carrier, which was the best I ever eat, & I would 
have you send me some of the same sort by every Carryer, take care to Pick the 
hen fish and those that are of the Red Kind, and let them be potted & seasoned 
just as that Pot was for it cant be beter — 

As I recon it is now the best season for Charr, I would have you send me 
some fresh ones, directed to my Lord Lovell who is Postmaster Generall as you 
did the year before last, which I think was by an express, but these came 
in a wooden box, which made it to great a weight for the Post to carry 

conveniently therefore these shoud be put into some sort of a basket & 

the fish packed in it. in moss or some sort of thing that will keep them from 
bruzing and not give them a taste — You let me know what day they will be in 
town that I may give Ld Lovell notice of it that they may not lye at the 
Post office — 

* Papers in possession of Mr. Baldwin, of Dalton-in-Furness. 



Let them you send me be well chosen fish and all of the Red sort. 

When you have Particulars of the Bloom Smithy Rents you'l send them me 

I am yours 

London Jan 27 

is there not a considerable number of freeholders in the Liberty of Furness who 
vote for members of Parliament ? I shoud be glad if you coud at your leasure 
send me a list of all the freeholders in generall both great & small that are wjthin 
the seven parishes in the liberty of Furness under the heads of the several vilages 
or divisions where their freeholds are. 


Art. XXXVI. The House of Percy, entitled Barons Lucy 

of Cocker mouth. By Geo. T. Clark, F.S.A. 
Read at Lancaster, Sept. 18th, 1890. 

THE house of Percy has at length found its historian, 
and that which bishop Percy contemplated, a century 
and a half ago, has been achieved by the industry of Mr. 
de Fonblanque and the liberality of the present duke. 
The result appears in the shape of two portly volumes, 
correctly edited, handsomely printed, and tastefully illus- 
trated, worthy of the editor, the patron, and the subject. 

It is pleasant to find the old border spirit still alive, 
though the sword has been superseded by the pen, and the 
bugle blast no longer awakes the ancient echoes. As in 
the days of " snaffle, spur, and spear ", the provocation, 
though in the pacific form, has sprung from the north of 
the Tweed. The glove, no longer of steel, lifted by the 
lord of Alnwick, was flung down by the laird of Branx- 
holm and his henchman Sir William Fraser, and the 
world is richer by two excellent histories of the families of 
Scott and Percy. The Douglasses indeed, the more im- 
mediate rivals of the Percies, and with them the theme 
of many a border ballad, have long since found their 
" vates sacer " in trusty Sir John Holland, whose theme 
was ever " The Douglas, tender and trewe ". 

It is remarkable that Scotland, wasted by centuries of 
civil dudgeon and foreign invasion, should retain so many 
families of historic celebrity, who still hold their heredi- 
tary lands, live within or on the site of theirancient castles, 
and preserve almost uninjured their household books, 
charters, and enfeoffments. Douglas and Scott, Home 
and Ker, Maxwell and Elliot, still retain their border 
territories ; and beyond the Forth and Clyde, Campbell 



and Graham, Hamilton and Carnegie, Gordon and Grant, 
Cameron and Mac Intosh, and a host of lesser chieftains, 
still dwell besides their lochs and their rivers, and be- 
neath the shade of their craigs and their mountains. It 
is not so in England, though England has suffered but 
little from civil broils and not at ail from foreign invasions. 
The house of Plantagenet has left but one offshoot, the 
house of Tudor not one ; while the Bruces and the 
Stewarts are represented on both sides of the blanket, 
by many wealthy and powerful offshoots. With us scarce 
any survive of the older baronial families, and still fewer 
possess any part of their ancient lands or reside within an 
ancestral castle. Mortimer and de Vere, Mowbray and 
Warren, Clare and Montacute, Beauchamp and Bohun, 
are no more ; their titles extinct, their lands scattered. 
Their castles, where such remain, are either owned or 
inhabited by strangers to their blood. The earls of Hun- 
tingdon, who under Elizabeth stood in dangerous proximity 
to the crown, retain but an empty title ; the Clintons, 
founders of Kenilworth keep, and lords of Maxtoke castle, 
though not wanting in titles or estates, possess nothing 
of their ancient honours or property. Berkeley, by the in- 
justice of a vicious ancestor, is divorced from the castle 
whence he derives name and title : Scrope lies crushed 
under well nigh five centuries of attainder : Beaumont 
retains nothing commensurate with his unbroken male 
descent from the house of France, nor Feilding with that 
from Rodulph of Habsburg. None of these have pro- 
duced or can produce materials for a family history such 
as are found in many a Scottish muniment room. The 
lords of Belvoir, representing the barons Ros of Helmsley, 
those of Arundel representing their own unblemished 
name and that of Fitz Alan, and the Nevills of Aber- 
gavenny, are indeed illustrious exceptions, since they 
possess estates which have never been sold or bought, 
and castles which were strongholds in Saxon days, and 



in which their forefathers have resided from the Norman 
conquest. But though possessing ample materials for 
family history they have not yet found a Fraser or a 
Fonblanque. Courtenay, equally holding a castle and 
lands which, so far, have never come under the hammer, 
can indeed produce a family history, though scarcely one 
compiled with the completeness of that now under con- 

The lords of Alnwick possessed one very considerable 
advantage over their compeers above enumerated, they 
were not only great, but they were border nobles. Their 
position on the northern and most exposed frontier of the 
kingdom was calculated to stimulate to the utmost their 
military qualities and to secure for them an independence 
held only, and of necessity, by a border chieftain. Hence 
the light of contemporary history beat fiercely upon their 
lives and actions, and the historian of the Percies must 
have contended rather with a surplus than a dearth of 
material. It seems generally to be admitted that Mr. de 
Fonblanque has executed his task with considerable judge- 
ment. Not being, as we understand, a genealogist by 
profession, he has not, like some others, confined himself 
to a mere record of names and dates and the details of 
an ordinary pedigree, while, on the other hand, though re- 
lating the actions of men rendered immortal by Shake- 
speare, and who took a leading part as warriors and 
statesmen in all the great transactions of their time, he 
has resisted the temptation to swell his narrative with 
extracts from the history of the country, and has confined 
himself to so much of it as bore directly upon the objects 
of his biography. 

The Percies, though statesmen upon occasion, were 
essentially soldiers by profession. Alnwick, for many 
centuries the " castle dangerous " of the English border, 
was regarded as the main bulwark of the country against 
its most implacable and most formidable foe. But the 




accession of the Stewarts to the English throne rendered 
the border castles unncessary, and put an end to the 
struggles to which the border lords owed name and fame. 
The Percies retired from Northumberland to their southern 
possessions, and while Petworth rose to palatial splendour, 
Alnwick and W ark worth, Prudhoe and Cockermouth, 
were left uncared for and speedily fell into decay. The 
Percy race was well nigh run. Their possessions having 
come by the distaff, by the distaff descended. The earl- 
dom became extinct, and the estates centered in Elizabeth 
Percy, who became the greatest heiress of her day, and 
suffered accordingly. 

It would seem that a certain William, designated from 
the manor of Perci in lower Normandy, accompanied the 
Conqueror to England, and was either of a rank or of 
personal merits, or both, to receive from him a con- 
siderable estate, together with the hand of a Saxon heiress, 
named possibly from her " Port " of Semer near Scar- 
borough. He thus became a great Yorkshire baron, and 
established himself at Spofforth and Topcliffe as chief 
seats. Whitby an impoverished Saxon foundation, re- 
ceived restoration at his hands. He died in Palestine in 
1096, the lord of 86 manors in Yorkshire, of 32 in Lin- 
colnshire, and of others in Hampshire, as may be read in 
the Doomsday survey. Alan, the second baron, aug- 
mented the Yorkshire estates ; William, the third, founded 
Handel abbey, and another William, the fourth Baron, 
held a command at the battle of the Standard, and thus 
plunged into the thick of that northern warfare, in which 
his descendants were to become so distinguished. He 
also founded Sallay abbey. This was the baron whose 
gift of timber for the rebuilding of York minster is com- 
memorated by a bas relief on the west front. 

Unbroken male descent was rare in an age when men 
appeared in arms in their boyhoood, and to this the 
fourth baron was no exception. His surviving child was a 



daughter, Agnes de Percy, who bestowed her hand and 
her land upon Jocelyn lord of Petworth and jconstable 
of Arundel castle ; a scion of the sovereign counts of 
Louvain, Brabent and Hainault, and half-brother to 
Adeliza the Queen of Henry 1st. Jocelyn, of whom it is 
said that he 

for her sake 
Retained his arms, but Percy's name did take, 

in point of fact seems to have borne no sirname, and the 
name was not taken nor the arms used till some little 
time afterwards. 

And thus began the new dynasty the Louvain-Percies, 
the Percies of English history. Agnes, the last of the 
old name, was buried at Whitby, dying on St. Agnes day 
as her epitaph recorded, 

Agnes, Agnetis festo tumulatur, et istis 
Idem sexus, idem nomen, et una dies. 

Here, on St. Agnes day, was Agnes laid, 

Of whom one sex, one name, one holy-day is said. 

Henry, the sixth Baron, and the first of the new dynasty, 
thus united the royal blood of one parent with the landed 
possessions of the other. With his wife, a Bruce of 
Skelton, he added Leckinfield to the property, and his 
descendants long fulfilled the condition that on each 
Christmas mom the head of the house should attend the 
lady of Skelton to and from her mass, and dine afterwards 
at her table. 

William the eighth baron was eclipsed by the superior 
strength and energy of his uncle and guardian Richard, 
who usurped the barony, took a leading part in the 
troubles of king John's reign, and gave his signature to 
the great charter. The succession however returned to 
his nephew Henry, who resumed the name given to his 



grandsire at the font by Henry 1st, and borne by the head 
of the family for 13 successive generations. 

Henry his son, the 9th baron, married Eleanor Plan- 
tagenet, called Warren, descended, with the bend sinister, 
from the house of Anjou, and niece of Henry III whose 
cause he espoused, and was taken with him at Lewes. 

Henry, the 10th baron, commenced his career by ob- 
taining a licence to fortify his houses of Spofforth, Leckin- 
field, and Petworth, but his military tastes were not 
merely of the defensive order, for he accepted early service 
in Scotland, Wales and Gascony. While a youth he 
took knighthood at the hand of the " Malleus Scotorum ", 
at the siege of Berwick, and on the king's departure for 
Flanders he, with lord Clifford, was deputed to receive 
the submission of the Scottish nobles, and he held the 
constableship of Bamburgh and Scarborough, the two 
strongest of the northern fortresses. He was at the siege 
of Caerlavrock where 

les Escoses derompant, 

Jaune e bleu lyon rampant 
Fu sa baner bien vuable. 

So that he then combined the lion of Louvain, an early 
example of " les armes parlantes," with the name of 
Percy, whose arms, five hand hammers or masons picks, 
savoured of the same usage. The lands granted to him 
in Scotland included the earldom of Carrick, which how- 
ever passed away with the life of the donor ; but he 
acquired by purchase, in 1309, the castle and barony of 
Alnwick, which thenceforward became the chief seat of 
the family, and one which obliged each lord in succession 
to become, not unwillingly, a military leader. 

No doubt Anthony Bee, that " proud and maisterful 
prelate " who, himself in armour, attended Edward to 
the Scottish war, at the head of the armed tenants of his 
see, and who negociated the sale of Alnwick, was anxious 



to interpose so warlike a chieftain between the Scottish 
marchmen and St. Cuthbert's patrimony, for Alnwick had 
fallen into decay, and the bishop had his own episcopal 
castles to attend to. The choice was well made. The 
new lord at once took the fortress in hand. Preserving 
what could be preserved of the keep, he and his son re- 
constructed, almost from the ground, though apparently 
on the old lines, the whole of the exterior walls and 
towers, in such a manner that amidst all the injuries and 
restorations brought about by time and war the work of 
the first lord Percy of Alnwick may still be identified by 
the skill of its design and solidity of its masonry. Though 
opposed in arms to the excesses of Edward the II, he 
took no share in the breach of faith by which Gaveston 
was put to death, and he shared in the battle and defeat 
of Bannockbourne, where he was taken prisoner, but 
which he did not long survive. 

Alnwick is so closely identified with the name of Percy, 
that few persons are aware how late it so became, or that 
the Percies were preceded there* by many generations of 
powerful barons who held their own against the Scots, 
and even at times against their own sovereign. But of 
the Tysons and de Vescis there is but little local memory, 
any more than of their neighbours the Mowbrays and the 
Umphravilles, names obscured, not assuredly from any 
defect of valour on their part, but from the superior 
vitality and self-assertion of the house of Percy, with 
whose name Alnwick was to become identified. Alnwick 
stood, and, complete from turret to foundation stone, still 
stands on the southern banks of the Aln, one of the 
wildest of the many wild and beautiful streams that de- 
scend from the hilly parts of Northumberland towards the 
German ocean. A knoll, in no way remarkable, seems to 
have been selected, at a remote period, as fitted for the 
residence of some powerful chieftain. It bears no marks 
of Celtic or Roman occupation, but much resembles in 


4<d6 the house of percy. 

its circumscribing ditch and central mound the burgh of 
some Scandinavian viking, who, having landed in the ad- 
jacent harbour, was tempted to merge the pirate in the 
settler and colonist. And thus it is that, notwithstanding 
the constructions and reconstructions of many genera- 
tions, the curious antiquary may still trace, or believe 
himself to trace, the outlines of the original stronghold. 

It may seem strange the lord of estates so vast in 
Yorkshire, and in the more peaceful south, should desert 
them for a new and dangerous, and at that time barren, 
acquisition. But the greater the noble, the stronger his 
desire to place the centre of his power at a distance from 
the court of his sovereign, and thus it was that the de 
Clares, de Braoses, Bohuns, and Percies were willing to 
affront all the dangers of a marcher lordship, for the sake 
of the independence with which it was, of necessity, ac- 

Another Henry, nth baron, but the second of Alnwick, 
succeeded. He was but 14 years old at his father's death, 
but had already so distinguished himself that the king 
forewent his wardship, and placed him at once, not only 
in possession of Alnwick, but in command of Pickering 
castle, and the peninsular fortress of Scarborough. His 
exertions justified the exception. In Edward III he 
found a leader capable of calling forth his military talents. 
He garrisoned Alnwick at his own charges, served before 
Berwick with 146 men at arms, distinguished himself at 
Halidon Hill, and was active in seating Baliol on the 
Scottish throne. He was also present at Viranfosse, and 
in the great naval fight of Sluys. While Edward fought 
at Crecy, Percy was left in charge of the border, seeing 
that the king's absence, and that of the chief military 
force of the kingdom, made it probable that the Scots 
would turn the occasion to account, as indeed they did. 
King David with 50,000 fighting men, 

Gleaning the ravished land with hot assays 



crossed the border, and penetrated to Durham. Percy 
could collect but 16,000 men, chiefly raw soldiers, but 
the whole country was with him. Women became men, 
husbandmen fought like trained soldiers, men of peace 
became men of war. Queen Phillippa played her part. 
The two archbishops and the bishops of Carlisle and 
Durham led their vassals in person. Percy posted him- 
self on the right wing. The combat was felt, as at Crecy, 
to be dangerously unequal, but the Scots like the French, 
declined negotiations, and the result was the victory of 
Neville's Cross, and the captivity of the Scottish king. 

Scoti fugerunt, latuerunt, morte ruerunt ; 
Percy persequitur, peremit, rapit, arte potitur. 

" Persequitor," " penetrans," " penetrator," were the 
monkish plays upon the name of the hero of the day. 
" Penetrans cognomine venit ". Lord Percy's gallantry 
placed the family at the head of the chivalry of the north, 
and gave to the border some years of tranquility. Percy's 
acquisitions in the north were extensive, but transitory, 
but he added Warkworth to his estates, and the great 
middle gatehouse to his castle. He died in 1352, having 
married Idonea, daughter of lord Clifford, and leaving 
a name unrivalled in border warfare. 

Henry the 12th baron, and 3rd lord of Alnwick, was a 
son not unworthy of his sire. Of small stature, " vir 
parvse statural ", he is also recorded as " fortis, fidelis, 
et gratus ". He fought with the king at Crecy, and under 
his father at Neville's Cross. His later military suc- 
cesses were won as warden of the marches, but he also 
acted as an ambassador in France and Britanny. In his 
person the Percies attained their highest genealogical 
honour, intermarrying with the royal house, his wife 
being a daughter of Henry of Lancaster. 

Henry the 13th baron, and 4th lord of Alnwick, perhaps 
the ablest of his race, and described as " eloquent, 



learned, and watchful '*, succeeded to a large but dis- 
located inheritance. In his day the tide of internecine 
war rolled forward with almost unbroken force, and those 
who like the Percies, rode upon the crest of the wave, 
were not unlikely to be swept away in the foam, and had 
need to mingle prudence and circumspection with the 
headlong valour of their ancestors. In company with 
John of Gaunt, his friend and kinsman, Percy commenced 
his career under the Black Prince in Gascony, and after 
a short but active absence upon the Scottish border, re- 
turned to France with 60 men at arms and 40 servants, 
and shared in the victory of Navaretta with his brother 
Thomas, afterwards distinguished both as a sailor and a 
soldier, and not less as a statesman and a diplomatist. 
Again returning to his menaced border, Percy again 
crossed the seas with a large attendance in the vain hope 
of redeeming the disasters consequent upon the sickness 
and retirement of Prince Edward. Afterwards, at the 
instance of John of Gaunt, he appeared as the friend of 
Wickliffe at his trial, and shared in the dangers of the 
subsequent tumult in London. 

At the coronation of Richard II he was created earl 
of Northumberland, became a member of the council 
of regency, and distinguished himself in various offices at 
home and abroad. In this he had the aid of his son, the 
famous Hotspur, so called says Froissart, " a cause de son 
humeur violente et emportee ", who 

For his sharpe quicknesse and speedinesse at need 
Henry Hotspur was called in very dede. 

Hotspur was but 25 years his father's junior, but had 
served as his page in a stricken field, and been knighted 
at 12 years old, the year in which his father avenged the 
treason of the Scottish marauders, and their massacre of 
the garrison of Berwick, and in which, boy as he was, he 
led the assault. Out of this adventure rose a quarrel 



between the earl of Northumberland and the duke of 
Lancaster, in which a challenge was given and accepted, 
but overruled by the king. He next served as high 
admiral, and organized a naval force to protect the com- 
merce of London. While thus engaged the earl and the 
duke attended Parliament in full armour, each supported 
by armed retainers. 

The earl married, as his second wife, the heiress of the 
Lucys of Cockermouth, with whom came that castle and 
barony and Wressil castle, with large estates. The lady 
stipulated that her three luces should be quartered in the 
Percy shield, and in return for so great a concession her 
estates were so settled that on her death without children 
the Percys should succeed. This actually happened, and 

the lord Percy bore continually 

The blue lion and the luces silver in his arms quarterly 

and a record, 21 R II, notices the shield " de insignibus 
armorum de Percy cum armis de Lucy," besides which 
though quite contrary to peerage law as even then under- 
stood, the Percys assumed the baronage of Lucy as one 
of their subordinate titles. 

But the prowess of the family was not confined to the 
acquisition of manors or castles, or the bearing of heraldic 
achievements. While the earl and his brother Sir 
Thomas took an active part in the wars, agressive and 
defensive, of the country, Hotspur and his brother Sir 
Ralph prepared to meet the earl of Douglas and 40,000 
Scots, who in two bodies traversed the border, and laid 
siege to Carlisle and Newcastle. The earl took charge of 
Alnwick, which lay in the Scottish war-path, and his sons 
defended Newcastle, where Hotspur challenged Douglas 
to a hand-to-hand encounter. They met, and Hotspur 
was worsted, and his pennon carried off in triumph, and 
is said to be preserved at Cavers, though unfortunately 
the pennon there bears the Douglas, not the Percy cog- 


nizance. Nevertheless the pennon was really taken, and 
Hotspur's determination to wipe out the stain led to the 
battle of Ottcrbourne, where 

Now a Douglas was the cry, ' 
Now a Percy rent the sky. 

and each nation and each leader sustained their high 

It was the first appearance of the lion and the luces on 
the same banner, and how great was the importance at- 
tached to these personal emblems may be gathered from 
the Scottish account of the battle which relates how that 

By the formost man of ev'ry clan 

His chieftains crest was borne on high : 

But the Douglas heart was aye in the van 
And was carried full gallantlie. 

It was also by Hotspur, as is supposed, that the Percy 
war cry and motto of " Esperance " or " Esperance en 
Dieu " was first adopted. 

The earl was with his sons in the field. Douglas was 
slain, but Hotspur and his brothers were made prisoners. 
The battle of Otterbourne has been the theme of many a 
ballad, but its renown is mainly due to its having given 
the text for Chevy Chase, nor has even that land of 
chivalry and patriotic song recorded anything finer than 
the passage where Percy 

Leaned on his brande 
And saw the Doglas de : 

And then 

He tooke the dede man be the hande 

And sayde, wo ys me for the ! 
To have savyde thy lyffe I wolde have pertyd with 

My landes for yeares three ; 
For a better man of hart, nare of hande, 

Was not in all the North countrie. 

The services of Hotspur were recognized with the cap- 


tainship of Carlisle, and the wardenship of the western 
march, and he was admitted into the great English order 
of chivalry, already attained hy his father and his uncle, 
and it is satisfactory to learn that records lately discovered 
prove beyond reasonable doubt that the Garter was then 
held for the first, and it is believed for the only time, by 
three living members of the same family. 

The earl next appears as the president of a court of 
chivalry in the well known Scrope and Grosvenor dispute 
for the right to bear the " bend or"; a dispute more cele- 
brated, though far less tragic, than that in which the 
male heir of the great house of Hastings claimed to bear 
the golden maunch. 

But Richard's weak and tempestuous reign was about 
to fall under " the sweeping whirlwinds sway ", and the 
turbulent times gave ample employment to the four active 
members of the house of Percy. Sir Thomas, become 
earl of Worcester, took a conspicuous part in parliament. 
Laying aside their feud with the duke of Lancaster, the 
earl and Hotspur, on his banishment, attended him to his 
embarcation, and thereby incurred a sentence of exile and 
confiscation, which however no man was found bold 
enough to execute, and they were foremost to welcome 
Bolingbroke on his landing at Ravenspur, although they 
did not, at first, support his usurpation of the throne. 

When the usurper became king he spared no pains to 
win the Percies to his side. The earl became high con- 
stable, his brother joint high steward, and wardenships 
and grants of land were showered upon Hotspur. For 
some time these retainers were well earned, but Henry's 
inability to pay the troops gave rise to discontent, and 
finally the Percies took part with the earl of March, and 
even. Hotspur's splendid victory over the Scots at Homil- 
don only gave rise to a personal quarrel, even to the 
drawing of daggers, with the king, on his claiming, con- 
trary to the custom, the custody of Hotspur's prisoners. 



The step into open rebellion was, in those days, easily 
taken, and the quarrel was fought out on the field of 
Shrewsbury, with what result Shakespeare has proclaimed. 
Hotspur there met a soldier's death. Worcester was 
taken and beheaded on the field. Northumberland, con- 
fined to a litter by sickness, was on his way to join them, 
but was not actually present at the battle, made his peace, 
but for a time only, and finally, as the royal party 
gathered power, his estates were confiscated, and he 
himself met his death at Bramham Moor, leaving his 
grandson, a youth of ten years old, an attainted name and 
a broken estate. 

Stirps Persitina periet confusa ruina. 

and the Percy crescent, the silver horn of the border 
firmament, which had waxed brighter and brighter with 
each succeeding lord, was now on the wane. At Northal- 
lerton and Neville's Cross the struggle was patriotic, but 
the wars into which the Percies had now entered were of 
a very different character; the game was one from which 
both sides were to rise losers. 

The next Henry, the successor of his grandsire, and the 
2nd earl of Northumberland, who was to become 

The great lord of Northumberland, 

Whose warlike ears could never brook retreat, 

was taken by his mother, a fugitive, to the court of 
Scotland, where he was well received and brought up 
with the future James the ist. Ten years later, when 
James, on his way to the way to the court of France, was 
driven to land under Flamborough head, and was taken 
for a captivity of 18 years, the young earl was his com- 
panion, and narrowly escaped the same fate. While 
hiding on that and other secret visits to his paternal lands, 
he met with many adventures, and was hero of many 
Northumbrian songs and legends. Latterly, however, 



though treated with personal kindness, his stay in Scot- 
land became compulsory, and it was only in exchange for 
a son of the duke of Albany that he was released. In 
Henry of Monmouth, the new king of England, he found 
a friend. His honours were restored, and he recovered 
from time to time a large portion of his estates, and at 
once took his seat in parliament. The grace, freely 
granted, was well bestowed, and Henry V had no more 
faithful subject. He gained his pardon too late for 
Agincourt, but he shared in the subsequent campaign, 
entered with the king into Rouen, and was present at the 
siege of Melun. 

When the Scottish king was restored to his throne, the 
charge of his escort was committed to the earl, but what- 
ever their personal friendship, it stood not in the way of 
a good deal of international strife, in which Percy was by 
no means always the victor. He avenged the massacre 
of Wark in 1419, but at Piperden on the Cheviots he was 
beaten by Angus, with the loss of half his army and 1,500 
followers of gentle blood. He also took part in civil 
affairs ; was lord steward at Henry's marriage, and sat as 
judge on the trial of the duke of Suffolk for the death of 
the duke of Gloucester. He was also a principal in a 
case of wager of battle, concerning a claim for a Cumber- 
land manor, in which chief justice Babington sat as 
assessor. The proceedings are very curious and are given 
by Mr. de Fonblanque at length. The matter however did 
not come to blows ; had it done so the duel would have 
been fought by champions, a very convenient arrange- 
ment — for the principals. 

The earl recovered Wressil castle, and lived to see his 
second son created baron Egremont. He survived the king 
and took an active part in the wars of the roses. Of his 
sons three fell in battle, at Northampton, Hedgeley Moor, 
and Towton, fighting for the red rose, for which cause 
the earl also died, at the first battle of St. Albans, in 1455. 



Nevertheless his career was in many respects a successful 
one, seeing that he restored the fortunes of the family, 
and even added to the landed estate. He possessed the 
family taste for liberal arts, and founded three divinity 
fellowships, still extant, at Oxford, and a grammar school 
at Alnwick, where he obtained a license for the walling 
of the town, one of the gates of which, bearing the Percy 
lion is still standing. He also rebuilt Warkworth castle, 
where the singular and very perfect keep is his work. 

Another Henry, the third earl, succeeded in his 34th 
year. Born in the same year with Henry VI and mar- 
ried at the same time, they were intimate from infancy, 
and when Henry received the accollarde of knighthood, 
the first upon whom he bestowed it was Henry Percy. 
As warden of the marches and governor of Berwick his 
first employment was to enforce the observance of the 
treaties between England and Scotland. He was also 
justiciary of the forests north of Trent. 

Early in his career the Lancastrian nobles formed a 
party to avenge their losses at Shrewsbury, which was 
met by a corresponding demonstration by the Yorkists. 
The king strove to bring about a reconciliation, and sum- 
moned the leaders to London. They came, but armed to 
the teeth, and attended by all the followers they could 
muster, Percy bringing up 1,500 men, and Warwick, from 
his house in Warwick lane, crowding the streets with 
wearers of his badge of the ragged staff. At the king's 
earnest entreaty they joined their orisons at St. Pauls. 
But party hatred was too strong for any precepts of peace. 
They rose in arms, and the Yorkists won the fields of 
Blore Heath and Northampton, where it was said that 
Egremont fell by the hand of Warwick. On the capture 
of the king, the queen, supported by Percy, led the party. 
In the north, amid a Lancastrian population, they raised 
an army of 20,000 men and won the battle of Wakefield 



at which the duke of York was slain, and the subsequent 
cruelty was such that 

Northumberland, then present, wept to see. 

But the success was transient. Northumberland indeed 
gained the second battle of St. Alban's over Warwick, 
but Pembroke was beaten at Mortimer's Cross, and the 
earl of March was proclaimed king as Edward IV. 
The Percies retired to the north, and raised a second 
army of 60,000 men, but only to meet with a hope- 
less defeat at Towton, with the loss of Northumber- 
land and his brother Richard on the field, where three 
centuries later was found the earl's massy signet ring. 
There remained of the family only Sir Ralph who at first 
surrendered to King Edward, but a month later fell at 
Hedgeley Moor, the last of the four brothers, and the fifth 
of the Percy family who had died for the red rose. It 
was Sir Ralph who, when dying, in allusion to their 
fidelity to the house of Lancaster, said, " I have saved 
the bird in my bosom ". Percy's Cross still remains to 
indicate the place of his death, and the spring whence he 
drew his last draught still bubbles up at its base. The 
earl with the rest of the family died under an attainder, 
which included the baronies of Poynings, Fitz Payn, and 
Bryan, with considerable southern estates which came 
with his wife, the heiress of those ancient titles. 

The next Henry, the 4th earl, was 15 at his father's 
death, and, like his grandsire, took refuge in Scotland, 
while Edward bestowed his earldom upon Sir John 
Neville, lord Montacute. A little later, when Edward 
found himself overshadowed by the power of the Nevilles, 
he brought forward Percy as a countervailing power ; 
restored a part of his estates, and as an arrangement 
with lord Montacute, prepared the way for a restoration 
of the titles. In the struggle that followed between 
queen Margaret and Edward IV, the earl's dislike to 



Warwick, and his natural caution, and cold calculating 
character, led him to stand neutral, as he continued to 
he even after Edward's landing at Ravenspur and his re- 
ception at York, but such was his personal weight and 
his hereditary power in the north, that Edward was fain 
to regard his neutrality as good service, and soon after 
the battle of Barnet his titles were restored. Neverthe- 
less the support he gave during the remainder of 
Edward's reign continued to be of a passive character. • 

On Edward's death his allegiance took a more active 
form, was transferred to his brother Richard, both as 
regent and as king. His reward was the complete re- 
storation of the estates. 

His conduct at Bosworth has been severely, though 
perhaps not unjustly, commented upon. He was present 
with a considerable force but took no part in the combat. 
It was said that 

With thirty thousand fighting men 
Lord Percy went his way. 

and he certainly displayed a degree of prudence not com- 
mon in the family. He no doubt recognized the abilities of 
Henry Tudor and the prospect of a strong government, then 
much needed in the country, He at once gave his support 
in the north to the king, and was confirmed in the offices 
he had held under Richard. In return he escorted the 
king on his visit to the north, and put down the rising of 
Lovel and Stafford. He was also present at the battle of 
Stoke by which Simnell the pretender was disposed of. 

On the other hand his good understanding with Henry 
was endangered by the king's avarice and his jealousy of the 
great nobles. Nevertheless he stood for the maintenance 
of order, and it was while supporting the king's measures 
in Yorkshire that he was set upon by a Yorkist mob, and 
murdered as a supporter of an unpopular taxation, of 
which indeed he seems to have disapproved. Henry 



accepted his death as an evidence of his loyalty, and 
ordered him a magnificent funeral at Beverley, but at the 
expence of the family. From Jocelyn, his youngest son, 
descended Thomas Percy a conspirator in the gunpowder 

Henry Percy, the fifth earl, succeeded in his 12th year, 
and was one of the youths knighted with Prince Arthur a 
few months later. 

Young lyon, but tender yet of age. 

as he is addressed by Skelton. He won his spurs at 
Blackheath leading the northern horse, when the Flemish 
counterfeit was taken, and he received the almost here- 
ditary office of warden of the marches in which capacity he 
escorted the princess Margaret to her Scottish bridegroom, 
and by his display on that occasion won for himself his title 
of " The Magnificent ". An early transaction in which 
the earl was concerned throws light on the perversion of 
justice by which the king filled his coffers. A certain 
Sir John Hotham having committed a murder, by the 
interest of the archbishop of York was allowed for £50 to 
obtain a pardon, upon which the earl paid £100 to bring 
the matter to trial. On another occasion the earl was 
fined £10,000 for having bestowed a lady in marriage 
whom the king claimed as a ward. 

The well known Northumberland household book, framed 
on the model of that of the royal court, shews the style 
in which a great noble lived under the Tudor sovereigns, 
and the order and economy with which the expences 
were regulated. The establishment was composed of 166 
persons, some of them men of high rank, and provision 
was made for 57 strangers daily, and the earl was by no 
means, at that time, the richest subject. Nor was his 
magnificence confined to his housekeeping. His Maunday 
alms were large, and his progresses through his estates, 



and to his several houses, absorbed large sums ; Wressil 
and Leckinfield were then his principal seats, and Top- 
cliffe was also visited. Alnwick and Warkworth seem to 
have been rather military barracks than well furnished 
residences. Lydgate and Skelton were of his intimacy, 
and his love of letters, rare in that age, seem to have 
been regarded as almost inconsistent with his military 
position. He was however kept in countenance by Prince 
Henry who spoke Latin, French, and Spanish, and was 
an accomplished musician. 

But the earl's love for literature was not inconsistent 
with the military qualities hereditary in his house. He 
crossed the seas with Henry VIII in 1513, contribu- 
ting a large force of retainers to the expedition, and 
taking with him " Esperance " his own herald, and a staff 
composed of the leading gentlemen of the north. They pre- 
pared the way for the king, and with him laid siege to and 
took Terouenne, and routed the French army coming to its 
relief. It was during the earl's absence in France that 
Flodden was won, and Sir William Percy, the earl's 
brother, held a command in Surrey's army. 

So great a position awoke the jealousy of the king and 
the rising Wolsey. Upon a trumped up charge of having 
interfered with the royal wardships he was committed to 
Fleet prison, and though speedily released was regarded 
with dangerous suspicion. Attempts were then made to 
impoverish him by laying upon him expensive duties such 
as receiving Margaret of Scotland, and attending at the 
Field of the Cloth of Gold. The want of means led him 
to resign his wardenship somewhat to the disgust of his 
dependants. At this conjuncture he died, at Wressil 
castle, in 1527, in his 50th year, leaving an exhausted 
treasury, with but twenty marcs in hand. 

Henry Percy, styled, with scant justice, "The Un- 
thrifty ", succeeded as 6th earl to an embarrased inheri- 
tance, but to a position sure to be regarded with jealousy 



by both Henry and his minister. Wolsey attached the 
young lord, as was the custom, to his household, and 
while there he became enamoured of Ann Boleyn, an attach- 
ment which lasted through his life and proved the bane 
of it. The king, who even then had fixed his lustful eyes 
upon the lady, employed Wolsey to nip the attachment 
in the bud. Ann was sent to her father and Percy was 
forced into a childless marriage, with a woman who 
proved that a man's worst foe is she of his household. 

The earl succeeded in his 25th year, but the cardinal 
continued to treat him as a child, interfering in the 
management of his household, and thwarting him in his 
conduct as warden of the marches. His history, beyond 
that of any other great noble of the reign, shews the in- 
justice of the king and the arrogance of the minister, and 
the degraded condition to which the wars of the roses, 
and the policy of the house of Tudor had reduced the 
great historic families. 

The earl's conduct as warden did him much credit. 
Rigorous in putting down disorder, he was always dis- 
posed towards mercy, usually in opposition to the com- 
mands of both king and cardinal. When the tide turned 
and Wolsey fell into disgrace, Northumberland shewed no 
petty spite. When ordered to arrest him he did so with 
every mark of respect, private and public, nor did Henry 
disapprove of his conduct but, on the contrary, rewarded 
it with the Garter. 

In the intrigues against queen Ann Boleyn, and the 
brutal proceedings of the king, the earl took no part, but 
denied solemnly that they had ever been engaged, which 
had been alleged as an argument for the divorce. His 
attachment survived her death and gave rise to the well 
known lines, 

Life without love is earth without sun, 
Anna, my first, my last, my only love. 



His position at the head of the Northern Catholics 
placed him necessarily in opposition to Henry's ecclesi- 
astical proceedings, and on the breaking out of the " Pil- 
grimage of Grace " his brothers Thomas and Ingelram 
with Aske pressed him sore to join them. He refused, 
though racked with pain and sickness, and ran great risk 
of being massacred like his father by the brutal populace, 
for Aske was the leader of 35,000 men. 

The crushing of the insurrection and the cruelties that 
followed are matters of history. Sir Thomas Percy, the 
heir of the earldom, was hanged and beheaded, and at- 
tainted in blood. The earl, foreseeing what would happen, 
thought by bequeathing his estates to the crown, there 
was a chance of their future restoration. Upon his 
brother's attainder he converted his bequest into a deed 
of gift. Henry, as rapacious as he was cruel, accepted, 
and left the earl to die in poverty, which took place at 
Hackney, near London, in his 35th year, in 1537. Though 
scarcely deserving to be called " Unthrift ", the earl was 
undoubtedly a bad manager, and at one time he was so 
pressed that he contemplated selling Petworth to the 
king. His heir was his nephew, Thomas, son of Thomas 
attainted brother. 

Thomas Percy, who broke the long chain of the Henries, 
and whose stately form and picturesque attire hold a 
conspicuous place in the dining hall at Alnwick, was next 
in succession as the seventh earl. Sir Thomas his at- 
tainted father, left two sons and a daughter to be cared 
for by his friends. Thomas, the elder, while a youth was 
knighted by Edw. VI and appeared as Sir Thomas Percy in 
1549, and was soon after so far restored in blood as to be 
capable of inheriting from his collateral relations, that is 
excluding the estates of the earldom. 

Under Mary he received favour and employment, be- 
came governor of Prudhoe castle, and recaptured Scar- 
borough from the French under Sir Thomas Stafford. 



His father's attainder was held to have extinguished the 
earldom beyond the powers of a reversal, a somewhat 
extraordinary doctrine, so the queen created it anew, 
giving him, it is thought illegally, the precedence of the 
previous title. He also recovered a portion of the lands 
conveyed by his uncle to the crown and was admitted to 
the offices usually held by his family on the border, 
in which and in divers military operations, he acquited 
himself with credit, though his tastes, fostered by a 
happy marriage, were rather of a domestic than a public 

The accession of Elizabeth materially altered his posi- 
tion as a catholic leader in a district ill affected to the doc- 
trines of the reformation : he was regarded with suspicion : 
his officers were displaced, and he was practically super- 
ceded on the border by Sir Ralph Sadler. In consequence 
he retired to Petworth, but was reported as "obstinate in 
religion ". When Mary of Scotland landed at Cocker- 
mouth, the earl was at Topcliffe, and claimed to have 
charge of her as within his command. In this he failed 
but was regarded as a favourer of the queen. About the 
same time the crown claimed certain of his minerals 
which led to disputes with Cecil, and he and the earl of 
Westmorland were summoned to the court, obviously 
with a view to the securing their persons. They refused 
to obey. The earl of Sussex was sent to arrest him and he 
was then forced into the rebellion known as " the rising 
of the North " supported by " all the flower o' Northum- 
berland ". 

Now was the north in arms ; they shine 
In warlike trim from Tweed to Tyne 
At Percy's voice ! 

Percy though a good soldier was no general. The in- 
surgents adopted the cause of the queen of Scots, but 
notwithstanding its local popularity the rebellion was 



speedily crushed, and the two earls fled to Scotland, 
where Northumberland was at first harboured by the 
Regent Murray, but afterwards by his successor sold to 
Elizabeth, and after a vain attempt by harsh usage to 
make him betray his friends, he met his death at York 
upon the scaffold with great dignity. " I die ", said he 
" in the communion of the Catholic Church, and I am a 
Percy in life and in death ". His faithful wife who had 
spared no exertions to serve him in Scotland, survived in 
exile and poverty 30 years. Cecil's resentments pursued 
her beyond the seas, and even prevailed upon the Spanish 
government to refuse her a residence at Brussels. 

The eighth earl had won a considerable reputation as a 
diplomatist and a soldier, as Sir Henry Percy, and was in 
the confidence of Elizazeth and her minister. Though not 
a better, he was a stronger man than his brother, and far 
more suited to the dangerous circumstances of the times. 
He was employed by both Mary and Elizabeth, and 
not only repressed a Scottish invasion, defeating the 
French auxiliaries, but retaliated upon the Merse, where 
he burned 16 villages and standing corn to the value of 
2,000 marcs. But though Elizabeth's servants might 
gain honour, they gained little wealth from so parsi- 
monious a mistress, so he was glad to mend his fortunes 
by a marriage with a Neville heiress whose landed pos- 
sessions were considerable. 

But the queen was slow to recognize him as heir to his 
brother, and his dissatisfaction ripened into something 
approaching treason. He became opposed to the im- 
prisonment of the queen of Scots, and promoted her claim 
to the English succession. He even went so far as to 
communicate with Mary, which brought him into great 
disfavour with Elizabeth, and it was only his connection 
with Cecil that saved him from the scaffold. He was 
however committed to the Tower, detained there 18 months, 
heavily fined, and when liberated exiled from the North. 



In the proceedings he is described as earl of Northum- 
berland, but the formal acknowledgement of the title 
was not given until 1576, and his restoration to favour 
was very partial. 

His position as head of the northern catholics, and his 
leaning to the queen of Scots caused him to be suspected 
and watched. He was a second time sent to the Tower and 
liberated, but deprived of his government of Tynemouth. 
This did not increase his loyalty, and being a third 
time committed to the Tower, he was found in his bed 
shot through the heart, and opinions were divided as to 
whether it was suicide or political murder. Those who 
took the former view supposed that, as a dead man, as it 
was then held, could not be attainted, he wished to anti- 
cipate an attainder and so secure his title and estates to 
his son. The mystery has not been cleared up. 

Henry Percy, the ninth earl, whose intellectual and 
care-worn face is best known by the portrait by Vandyke 
of which Mr. de Fonblanque gives an engraving, was born 
in 1564, and at his father's death was 21 years old ; 
probably from political motives, he had been brought up a 
protestant, and by the advice of lord Burghley he had 
travelled on the continent, where however his intimacy 
with the recusant Sir Charles Paget exposed him to the 
suspicion of a leaning to Rome. His father had bestowed 
much care upon his education, but had neglected to admit 
him to any knowledge of the estates or dependents of the 
family. His first care was to supply this want, and he 
set himself to look into his affairs and to see that his 
tenants, especially the poorer ones, were treated with 
justice and moderation. He became a purchaser of books, 
of which the titles may be taken to shew the extent of his 
reading both in literature and science. He also em- 
ployed persons to search the records in London, for 
evidences bearing on the family history, and he laid out 
money in pictures. But his special tastes were for 



mathematics, chemistry, and the occult sciences, and in 
the family roll he is designated as " the wizard earl ". 
He learned to smoke tobacco from Raleigh, not being 
deterred by King James's " counter blast ", and though 
not an habitual gambler, he indulged occasionally in high 
play, losing to Sir Walter and others in 1586, towards a 
thousand pounds. 

Upon the breaking out, in 1588, of the war with Spain 
the earl contributed largely towards the fleet, being one 
of those who equipped ships at their own charges. In 
consequence he was restored to his father's government 
of Tynemouth, and received the garter. The queen also 
remitted the fine of 5,000 marks which had been imposed 
upon his father. This however was the height and almost 
the end of his prosperity. He was credited with the idea 
of a marriage with Arabella Stewart, who stood nigh in 
succession to the crown, and though the jealous queen 
put a stop to this, by marrying him to a daughter of the 
earl of Essex, his wife's intrigues involved him in other 
troubles, which however were postponed by his departure, 
on active employment in the Netherlands, serving with 
Sir Francis Vere, the Sidneys, and Sir John Morris, and 
being present at the taking of Berghen and the siege of 

It was not until the close of Elizabeth's reign that the 
earl began to promote the cause of James as her successor, 
and thus awoke the jealousy of Burghley whose intrigues 
were to the same end. His correspondence with James 
is extant and does credit to his honesty and patriotism 
and on James' arrival he was well received, and rode 
upon his right hand on his entry into London. Moreover 
the king made him a grant of Syon and restored the 
remainder of his father's possessions. At Raleigh's trial 
the earl gave his cordial and efficient support, and there- 
by incurred so much of the king's ill will, that he retired 
from the court, and occupied himself at Syon with his 
books and his gardens, nor does he seem to have been at 



pains to conceal his contempt for the king's hungry and 
rapacious countrymen. The connexion of his kinsman 
and agent Thomas Percy with the powder plot tended 
still further to alienate him from the court, and upon the 
fact that Percy had been employed by him, and had been 
of his household, an attempt was made to found a charge 
against him as an accessory. The main charge failed 
utterly, but out of it the Star Chamber contrived to manu- 
facture certain minor accusations, upon which the earl 
was committed to the Tower, and fined in the monstrous 
sum of -£30,000. He remained a prisoner from 1605 to 
1622, 17 years, during which he accupied the N. East or 
Martin's Tower, renting an adjacent tower for his atten- 
dants. He seems to have lived in considerable state, 
having the society of Raleigh, and other learned men 
and occupying himself much in chemistry, and in the 
personal education of his son. When at last he was 
liberated the grace was clogged with unworthy conditions. 
He was confined to Petworth and its neighbourhoood, 
occasionly going to Syon, but being jealously debarred 
from visiting the north. He died at Petworth in 1632, in 
his seventieth year. 

Algernon, the 10th earl, was so called from the soubriquet 
of the first of the English Percies. He was the last of his 
race to take part in the public service of his country, or to 
leave a name holding a place in its history. The three 
score and six years that intervened between his cradle and 
his grave^saw many and violent changes. The religious 
conflict was over, the political conflict was about to begin. 
It began as a war not of parties but of principles on both 
sides, in which men of honour, of honesty, and of un- 
doubted patriotism, were found in opposite ranks, and in 
the course of which some of the best and wisest saw cause 
to modify their opinions without imputation upon their 
motives. By degrees, as personal ambition became an 
influence, and love of country degenerated into party 



strife, moderate men were set aside, and the earl, whose 
birth and abilities placed him in the fore front of the 
struggle, shewed himself too free from prejudice, and far 
too just, to become a popular leader, or even to acquire 
much permanent influence. He earned the respect of all 
parties but was followed by none. 

His childhood and youth were passed within the gloomy 
precincts of the Tower, but his education there was con- 
ducted by his father, and was of a high order, and his 
instructors were the best that could be obtained. He 
took knighthood at 15 years of age, was entered at Cam- 
bridge, and afterwards visited Paris. On his return he 
joined his father at Petworth. King James failed to 
attract him to the court or to impose upon him a wife. 
The young lord chose for himself, and happily, although 
the lady was a grandchild of Cecil, his father's most 
dangerous enemy. On his marriage he visited the north, 
where he found Topcliffe and Leckinfield dismantled, 
Alnwick almost in ruin, and only Wressil in a habitable 
state. On his succession to the earldom he at first at- 
tached himself to Charles, received the garter, was made 
high admiral, and was called upon to regulate the con- 
dition of the forces, both by land and sea. He found the 
navy a nest of abuses, and set himself fearlessly to root 
them out. Spain and Holland had command of the sea. 
In his internal reforms he was opposed by strongly exis- 
ting interests, and on the sea his attempts to restore to 
England her supremacy, were thwarted by the intrigues 
of the secretary Windebank, and still more by the con- 
duct of the king, strong in words, but timid and wavering 
in actions. 

When Charles, inclining to the counsels of Strafford and 
Laud, began to strain the prerogative, the earl's opinion 
placed him more or less in opposition to the court ; at 
the same time, when his brother Sir Henry a devoted 
royalist, fell under the displeasure of parliament he aided 



him to escape to France, and became distrusted also by 
the popular party. Soon afterwards the king revoked his 
commission as high admiral, upon which the parliament 
stepped in and appointed his successor, and the king lost 
the support of the fleet for the formation of which he had 
incurred so much hatred. When the king raised his 
standard at Nottingham and declared war, the earl sided 
openly with the Presbyterian party, but exerted himself to 
bring about a peace, and took a leading part in the Oxford 
Commission, but without success, His moderation then 
was distrusted, especially by the Independants, and an 
imputation upon his honesty was brought forward by 
Henry Marten, upon which the Percy temper broke out 
and the earl administered a caning, or what was called a 
cudgelling, on the spot. 

When the royal children fell into the hands of the 
parliament they were committed to the care of the earl 
at Syon, and were treated with due respect. By his 
second marriage with a daughter of the earl of Suffolk, 
and on a payment of £15,000, the earl became possessed 
of Howard House, at Charing Cross, which he rebuilt 
from the plans of Inigo Jones, and which continued until 
our times to be the London residence of the family. 
When the king's trial was proposed he voted against it 
as "an illegal and unconstitutional measure", and on 
the king's execution he returned into private life " re- 
garded with respect ", says Clarendon, " by all except 
those violent men who had from the first resented his 
constant efforts as a peacemaker ". Parliament incited 
by Cromwell caused Wressil castle to be destroyed. 

He remained in retirement for 12 years, until the Re- 
storation, building, laying out gardens at Syon, and 
forming a gallery of pictures at Northumberland House. 
He actively promoted the Restoration, sitting in the 
council of state, but attempting, though in vain, to secure 
certain restraints upon the royal power ; and he proposed 
the impeachment of Clarendon. 



But though well received by the king he took little part 
in public affairs, and shortly afterwards, in 1668, he died, 
at 66 years, a broken and worn out man. His panegyric 
and a very high one, was pronounced by his friend Sir 
William Temple. 

Jocelyn, the nth earl and 22nd baron, succeeded, and 
with a brief and undistinguished career, closed the lines 
of his ancient and historic family. He was born when 
his father was of the mature age of 42, also had the great 
advantage of that father's training and experience during 
the 25 years that elapsed before he succeeded to the earl- 
dom, and to possessions, which though clipped and cur- 
tailed, by the vicissitudes of four generations, were still 
adequate to the maintenance of his name and rank. His 
early promise was considerable. " When virtue and 
blood ", said his friend Evelyn, " are coincident, they both 
add lustre and mutual excellences. This is what my lord 
takes care to secure to his son, and what I foresee and 
augur of my noble lord Percy ". 

Though of a weak constitution he entered earl}' into 
public life, being at 16 a colonel of militia, and at 18 
joined with his father in the lieutenancy of Northum- 
berland, and in the same year, 1662, he was married to 
the half-sister of Lady Rachel Russell. A lover of litera- 
ture and the friend of Evelyn, Sir William Temple, and 
Locke, his tastes were domestic. A son was born to him 
and two daughters, but of them all but one daughter died in 
infancy, and taking Locke as a physician and companion 
the earl and his countess left England for the continent. 
His couise however was already run, and he died at 
Turin at the age of 26. With him the earldom became 
extinct, as, according to modern doctrine, did also the 
baronies created by queen Mary, so that, the earlier titles 
being extinguished by the attainder of the 7th earl, the 
heiress, notwithstanding the grant of precedency, was 



legally without any title, save that, of courtesy, of an 
earl's daughter. 

Lady Elizabeth Percy, at her father's death, was but 
three years old, and when her mother, partly to avoid the 
licentious attentions of Charles II, married, 1673, lord 
Montague, the guardianship of the child, under earl 
Jocelyn's will, fell to the dowager countess, whose passion 
seem to have been social power, money, and match 
making, which she was thus enabled to gratify. While 
much under age the heiress was contracted to the sickly 
son of Cavendish, duke of Newcastle. They were to be 
separated for two years ; but the bridegroom died in six. 
months. The second venture was with Thomas Thynne 
of Longleat, " Tom of ten thousand "; but about this 
marriage, which was also held in abeyance, there was; 
some mystery, and Lady Elizabeth fled to the continent 
and took refuge with Sir William Temple, her father's; 
friend, then representing England at the Hague. This 
second marriage came to an end by the assassination of, 
Thynne in 16S2, on which a third husband came forward in 
Charles Seymour, known as the proud duke of Somerset, 
whom the young lady had previously refused. 

The duke is favourably known in history by his refusal 
to introduce the papal nuncio at Windsor, and on James 
asserting that the king was above the law, for his answer, 
" that may be, sire, but I am not '', for which he was de- 
prived of his office and of his regiment. His good qualities 
were however neutralized by excessive family pride ; of 
which many stories are told, and which created many 
enemies. Stanhope describes him as a well meaning 
man, but of shy and proud habits and slender under- 
standing, and Swift, " modo suo ", is even less compli- 
mentary. He took office under William and Anne and 
strongly supported the Hanover succession. 

The duchess possessed excellent abilities, was well 
educated and accomplished, of high character, of much 



personal dignity, and greatly respected. Of their thirteen 
children, Algernon, earl of Hertford, succeeded his mother 
in 1722, and was summoned as baron Percy with the 
precedence of the 27 Ed. I. He was no favourite with 
his father, who alienated from the title much the larger 
portion of the estates in favour of a daughter who had 
married Sir William Wyndham. Lord Hertford sur- 
vived his father two years. He died in 1750, leaving but 
one surviving child, a daughter. Elizabeth Seymour, who 
thus became the second Percy heiress, had, during her 
brother's lifetime, given her hand to Sir Hugh Smithson, 
a Yorkshire baronet of good family and estate, who, if not 
equal to his wife in descent, as who indeed could be, 
proved a husband admirably suited to her very peculiar 
circumstances. He was a man of great personal attrac- 
tions, courteous and of distinguished manners of address, 
of good abilities, ambitious, resolute, and accomplished ; 
bent upon upholding the dignity of his wife, and his own 
dignity as her husband. He was a good man of business, 
and most successful in his administration of the residue of 
the Percy estates, which he raised from £9,000 to £50,000 
per annum. He was a great agriculturist, a great planter 
of trees, very popular with the tenantry, and in all respects 
a very remarkable man. The position he took is difficult 
to explain. He inherited the earldom of Northumberland 
under a limitation on the death of his wife's father. His 
acceptance of the lord lieutenantcy of Ireland seems to 
have been considered as a favour on his part. He refused 
a marquisate as a title of comparatively modern date, 
and finally obtained a dukedom and the garter. 

The caprice of the proud duke reduced very materially 
the wealth and position of the heretrix of the Percy 
honours. The whole of the Sussex, Cumberland, and 
Yorkshire estates had passed away to the Wyndbams, 
with the castle of Cockermouth and what remained of 
Wressil, Spofforth, aud Leckinfield, together with Pet- 


worth, upon which so much had been expended, and 
which contained the family plate and pictures, having 
been the chief seat of the later earls. Alnwick, Wark- 
worth, and Prudhoe were in ruin, so much so that the new 
lord and lady had to consider where to fix their future 
seat. The decision happily fell upon Alnwick, which 
they proceeded to render habitable. The times were not 
favourable to mediaeval restorations. St. Paul's, St. 
Martin's, and the Oxford Radcliffe, monuments of genius 
of Wren and Gibbs, had made popular the Palladian 
style ; the old mediaeval architecture had fallen into disuse, 
and the canons of Durham were about to sweep away 
their unrivalled chapter house, and those of Lichfield to re- 
store their beautiful west front with a coating of " compo ". 
It chanced however that the restorations executed at Aln- 
wick were of a less mischiveous because of a less extensive 
character. The outer walls remained and do still remain 
very much as they were originally constructed in the 14th 
century, with their entrance through a stately barbican, 
almost the only example of such a work remaining in 
this country. The keep, the central and habitable part of 
the castle, was not a mere cube like those of London or 
Hedingham, unfitted for modern life, but was composed 
of a circle of clustered towers, arranged round an open 
court, entered beneath a gatehouse which combined the 
distinguishing features of the 12th and the 14th centuries. 
Though in great disrepair, and much split and shaken in 
its masonry, the keep did not absolutely demand recon- 
struction, and its restoration seems to have been confined 
to the roofs and interior fittings. These were executed 
in plaster, in a sort of a Strawberry-hill gothic, shewing 
what would have taken place had the walls been rebuilt. 
And thus the whole remained until the accession of duke 
Algernon in 1847. The duke, better known as lord 
Prudhoe, was a good man of business, magnificient in his 
liberalities, and possessed of a highly cultivated taste. 



Having expended large sums in putting the estate into 
order, rebuilding the cottages and farmhouses, restoring 
the churches and parsonages in his gift, and in estab- 
lishing life-saving appliances along his iron-bound coast, 
he determined to restore the castle, and showed his judge- 
ment in selecting Salvin as his architect. The encircling 
walls and towers were left almost untouched, but the 
masonry of the keep being found to be in a dangerous 
condition, the greater part was taken down and rebuilt 
almost on the old lines, and in a very pure taste. To 
execute the interior fittings the duke founded a school of 
local carvers in wood and stone, under the direction, for 
a time, of an Italian master, and the general result was a 
suite of rooms of noble proportions, though in shapes de- 
termined by the outlines of the towers, and the fittings 
and ornaments of which for richness of design and ex- 
cellence of execution are probably unrivalled. Exception 
has been taken to the combination of an English mediaeval 
castle with fittings, such as da Vinci or Michael Angelo 
might have designed for a Visconti or a Medici. But the 
combination as actually carried out no one but a pedant 
could condemn, so congruous is the effect to the eye and 
to the mind. Could the shade of Hotspur again take 
possesion of his seat upon the wall he would see nothing 
that had not or that might not have existed in the 14th 
century, and could the magnificent Lorenzo revisit the 
glimpses of the moon, and walk through the interior, he 
would recognize, in wood and in marble, work rivalling that 
of his own age in delicacy, a library the like of which 
never enriched his palace, and paintings some of which 
had been in his own possession. 


Art. XXXVII. The Hudlcstons of Hutton John, the Hudle- 
stons of Kelston, now of Hutton John, and the Hudlestons of 
Whitehaven. By the late W. Jackson, F.S.A., with an 
introduction by W. Hudleston, of Hutton John. 
Communicated at Appleby, July 3rd, 1890. 
rjlHE late Mr. W. Jackson, F.S.A., of Fleatham House, 
-■- whose death has deprived this Society of a very valued 
member, left the pedigrees given herewith, with an 
appendix of extracts from parish registers, memoranda, 
and wills and inventories ready for publication, but had 
not drawn up the introductory note which he had con- 

At our president's request I briefly supply the omission, 
and avail myself of the opportunity to record my grateful 
sense of the great courtesy and consideration that marked 
Mr. Jackson's communications with me on the subject of 
this paper, to which he devoted much careful research. 
In it he has traced the descent to the present time, of 
that branch of the Hudlestons of Millom Castle, which 
became the eldest representative in 1745, when the Millom 
segniory passed from the family which had held it some 
600 years, to the Williamsons of Whitburn, Co. Durham, 
by marriage with the heiress. The only other child of the 
last Hudleston of Millom Castle died unmarried, and the 
estate was sold towards the end of the last century to Sir 
James Lowther of Whitehaven. 

The Hutton John branch originated by the marriage, in 
1564, of Andrew son of Sir John Hudleston of Millom 
Castle, by his third wife, Joyce daughter of Sir John 
Prickley, of Prickley, Co. Worcester, with Marie daughter 
of Cuthbert Hutton of Hutton John, and Elizabeth his 
wife, daughter of Sir Robert Bellingham of Burnishead, 
Co. Westmorland : Elizabeth Hutton was " mother of the 

maids " 


maids " at the court of her county connection, Queen 
Katherine Parr, and there Marie was born, the princess 
(afterwards queen) Mary being her god-mother. Special 
mention is made in Andrew Hudleston's will, of the prin- 
cess's " god-barn gift " to his wife, and Sandford, whose 
direct ancestress was Marie's eldest sister, says he had seen 
" the peece of gilt plate " at Hutton John. It had disap- 
peared in 1771 when Nicolson and Burn were compiling 
their history, and not improbably went into the melting 
pot in the civil war, when the cavaliers were contributing 
their plate to the king's treasure chest. Jefferson's 
identification of the old clock here " with a gilt face " as 
being the " peece of gilt plate " in question, is disproved 
not only by Andrew's will, but also by the fact that the 
date in the clockmakers' guild register of the maker 
" Edwardus East Londini ", whose name is on the clock, 
is 1632. The clock is probably that which was sent in 
16S4 by father John Hudleston, of Boscobel memory, to 
his niece Katherine (Lawson) wife of the then Andrew of 
Hutton John, who was sheriff of Cumberland that year, 
and to whom the old uncle presented " a sideboard of 
plate " to grace the occasion. 

Marie Hutton's only brother Thomas Hutton, who died 
unmarried, seems to have sold outright the estates of 
Middleskeugh and Little Stainton which he inherited on 
his father's death in 1553, and he burdened with a very 
long lease the estate of Hutton John, " which was holden 
in chief of the crown ", which lease led to protracted liti- 
gation, lasting from 1582 to 1655. 

In 1615 he sold the Hutton John estate with its encum- 
brances, to his nephew Joseph Hudleston of Farington 
Hall, Co. Lancashire, who held this last estate on a 
perpetual lease granted to his father by their kinsman 
Sir Edmond Hudleston of Salston Hall and his wife 
Dorothy, (born Beconsal). The king's license for the 



transfer of Hutton John by a " tenant in chief" is among 
the family papers. 

The Farington estate was seized by the crown in 1617, 
as security for a heavy fine imposed upon Joseph Hudleston 
by the Star Chamber, and, although he would seem to 
have recovered possession, Hutton John appears from 
this time to have become the family residence, and in the 
subsequent entries in the Greystoke register the family is 
so designated. 

Joseph (who died in 1646), settled the Hutton John 
estate on his son Andrew and Dorathie (Fleming) his 
wife, and their offspring, on their marriage in 1632, which 
settlement eventually saved the estate for the family, for 
in the act 23 of 1653 of the long Parliament, Andrew's 
name was included in the long list of royalists, whose 
estates were declared forfeited and ordered to be sold for 
the benefit of the commonwealth on account of " their 
several treasons against the parliament and people of 

A provision in the act saved " the rights and titles of 
dower of their respective wives," and Dorathie's claim 
on behalf of herself and her children was admitted, to 
have effect " after the death of the said Andrew ", so far 
as Hutton John was concerned, Andrew's ancestral estate 
in Worcestershire being finally confiscated and sold. 

He was continued in possession of the Hutton John 
estate as a tenant, paying rent to the government " cie 
facto'", and at the Restoration he regained the proprietary 
rights, which, so far as the mansion and demesne land 
are concerned, are still enjoyed by his descendants. 

In 1655 he managed through trustees to effect the re- 
demption of the lease encumbrance from the heirs of 
Thomas Hutton's lessee, whose claim to possession had 
been rejected by the parliamentary commissioners in 
1652 ; and on the marriage of " Andrew the sonne " with 



Katherine Lawson oflsell in 1662, these trustees formally 
transferred their trust to those of the marriage settlement. 

The redemption of the lease in the time of Oliver Crom- 
well's protectorate, terminated the litigation which had 
begun in Queen Elizabeth's reign, in the course of which, 
"my lord chancellor Egerton " and " my lord of St. Albons " 
and Sir Edmund Coke and many other gentlemen " lerned 
in the lawe " had at divers times and in divers capacities 
been concerned to such an extent, that but for the acci- 
dent of the civil war, it may be doubted whether any 
oyster would have been left in the shell. 

The foregoing narrative will suffice to explain the con- 
nection with Hutton John of the family to which Mr. 
Jackson's papers relate. 


Extracts from Greystokc Register. 

160S. June xiith, the same day was christined at Eavanynge prayer Jhon 
Wilton son of Richard Wilton and ffrances his wyffe of Hutton Jhon 
servants unto Mr. Joseph Hudleston. 

i6oy. September, the last day of this month was openly pronounced an excom- 
munication against Mr. Joseph Huddleston Ellyner his wife Wyneffryd 
Musgrave widow Issable Musgrave George Mounsey John his wife as 
it is thought by certayn. 

1619. August 13th day, buried Elizabeth the daughter of Mr. Joseph Huddles- 
ton of Hutton John. 

i6|§. ffebruarie 26th daye, buryed Barnard Cosen a cooke and servant to Joseph 
Huddleston Esq. of Hutton-ione. 

1623. September 3rd, Mrs. Marye Huddleston mother to Joseph Huddleston 
Esquire of Hutton-ione (buried in the night). 

1625. Julye 17th daye, buryed Mrs. Dorothie Sisson the wife of Mr. . . 

Sisson of Hutton-ion who p'soner in the ffleet wch by misfortune lost 
her selfe. 


Jos I 
born Nov. 21, 1565, at Scaton. I 
Marriage settlement dated June 
42nd Eliz. (1599, 1600). F.P. 1 
Nov. 19, 1646. G. 


dau. of Daniel Fleming' 
jcirwath. Mar. Nov. 

632. G. Bur. March 25, 
. G. 


born Oct. 16, 
1 60 1. F.P. Died 
an infant. F.P. 

born Dec. i< 
1602. F.P. 

born Oct. 19, 
ifios. F.P. 

of Hundhow Westm. Horn 
Aug. 7, 1^44. F.P. 
Bap. — , 1645. Ad. Bond 
dated Sept. 7, 16S0. 

John, = Catherine- 

RlCHARD, = - 

Elizabeth, = 



y- 7. 




of Jerome 





F. P. 




— •, 



g i7"5- 


.P., & 

ct. 15, 
:t. 2S, 


born Jany. 25. 
F.P., & bap. 
Feby. 3, 1G69. 
G. Died Oct. 
23, 1724. s.p. 


bap. March 
23, 1670. G. 
Bur. Nov. 24, 
1757. S.N. 
W ? 


born May 26, 

F. P., and bap. 
June 6, 1672. 

G. Unmar. 
Oct. 19, 1716. 
Died Jany. 25, 


of Penrith. 
Living- Dec 
12, 1739. 
Dead April 
— , *7 6 5- 

Isabel, = Edmund Gibson, = Eleanor. 
706. bap. Dec. 12, 1707. 1 of Barfield, Bur 

)ril 14, S.N.W. Bur. Nov. June 29, 17S0. 
6, 1752. S.N.W. I S.N.W. 

only dau. of 
Camerton, bor 
Oct. 14, 1736. 
173S. S.N.W 

*wg- 2, 1733- U- 
iug. 14, 1795- S.N. 

bap. July 26, 1734. G. Mar- 
riage settlement dated July 
17, 1794. Mar. July 21, 1794. 
P. Bur. Feb. 7, 1S21. G. 

Andrew, = Elizabeth, 

dau. of Sir W. Fleming, of 
Kydal. Died at Temple Sow- 
erby. Bur. Aug. 23, 1S30. G. 

prdigrcc Sheet, fin. 1.-" o Ijc ^iuMcstons of button lobn.' 





: ■!■■ '.".»:,- '. 

.. ,. . 

Oil '.1 I I..'* Mi. I , 

' ".I .).,,.,. 


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,,. I,,!. . . 






- ■ 


flf&igrrc Sljrrt &a. 2-f Ijc ^uMrstons of lidston, &r„ noto of button |o(pi. 

i i i i i i i i 1 i L— __! , — "__ 

I — - 

Drsrcnannts of tlir Rrfu Curtofn Tfjuolrston. srronb son of Wilfrio HuMrstoti, (Esq.. of iutton John, on his toifr Sonrr. bnngbtcr of tthomns (furtorn. (Ssq., of Workington. 

M p„ C*. „, €,„,.„„„. b„„^™^.T 1 „p. .,„,, 7 oS. S.N.W. SS«K"Sqi" ,0 ,"nd'i,«ir ». .„.„ Do,. „f Culte™,*, '""""" "'■""' '"' 

Mir. Oct. 14, 1 7 -A Cam. Hur. I V. . ;. >--■■ S.N.W. j b-,, \\ l,,i.. h.n ■ ; In.- !, . i:. . . : . K.„. \\ . ■ r:.l,u ml Mar. .\iitr. >. 174;. S. Bur. Fell. „ r-.™.rt nn 

I May -'■■. 171s. Died March ?4, and bur. ? 7 . .77. I -'. 17.1*. S.N. W. Lam. «- amc rio n. 

S WW S.N.VV. St. Nicholas, W 

I S. Scalcby. 

Wilfrid.-Elixasetk. InllN, 

>rn-, 1717. Bur. An.-. hap. Nov. -,.-.. mS. S.N. lieul. li.N. Died Nov. born Dec. 1.,, 1745- S.N.W. Incumbent of | ,.f Pr. Thr> s . Acrv ■•( K-remont. Horn -, l.-rr,-. 1 ?4 R - Died Apr.l 

"■ M-.r. A,,-. ,,. ,--,. _-.,. and bur. Dec. 1. St. Nicholas, Whitehaven. Inst, to Rectory of 1 745. Mar. |»ne 17. "77" S.N.W. Hied Dec 


1 ' St 


indsworth, Yor 

S.N.W. Died April q, 1795. S.N.W. < ■■ ■■ . Kb. ir. 1770. Rector of 2j, and bur." ;S, iS.\i, at Handsworth. 

r-:-4. M,,n. S.N.W. Handsworih. Yorkshire. Died April 7, and | 


uuzabitk. Toyc E ,= 1ahesK,ers Watson. MarJarrt, .**«'■<■*■ Ann. Margaret, Dorot 

S.N.W' ^S^V** "' - P -' 0C1 

York L'cr 

KLEAN..K. - hK.M.vs Ward, Mary, Andrew. ELIZADETH, oyce,= James Km-fls \\ ,is,,n. M.uo.ari-:t, i r >.. ? \, :,■,..' , |„„ „ f.rtn ■;.,■ !<"'■ 

*.«. .77S. |»'lwe H„u-,-,WN.. t, ap . .lets. ,; 77 . S.N. bap |an. _,. .770. S.N.W. Incum- bap. Dec. :. , 7 S... S.N.W. Lap. March ,b. ,,*_.. S. | o, I 1,-1 .„ M„!l \l„ I,,,. -■ |. :-. .;-■.. I^ ; I '■-- "b <7 'I- ^"y N"v -'.,'■ ^' P. ' ■" • " '" , ^ 

lb... h..rl Mar. I .-I, .... W lb,.. \,.r.t— . , <■-, I,. ,t „( St. Ni.holas YVIol, l,.-,v,n. Ibjr. | ., n ; . .■ , . . ' ., . in llr. t ,1 N.W. Di.:d m l,.,,|..o, . Au-. .,.,-:,... 1 \,, v . S \.\\. |,.n. S.N.W. lb,, ^, V \ V '"" „ - . ' , , ; , ,,| . m , „- y 

.. iSsi. a I ! . ■■ IW. |an. .-4.i ■;. at s,,..ff. , r .l!. W. K k, ,-r„r ..f M, ln,t.b,R rv <, rl „_,,ry. and bur. at S,,,!,-.,,,.,-, I ,.:, ,,_., Ii,r atScul- :i ,.:•.-. S VU . Apr.l ,4. r 7 -j5- ^- V"'..."' '" \ h i\ ,s" , ^ 

iurrey. ^Hand^irth, W.K..' Y.rlf. oF Bowiims, Nov. .4, iSafi. Died Nov. Jany. „, ,853. co^,-, N-W. 5.N.W. fK^r'th 

w,,,lh \ . ■' '■'■ ''u .i", ."■'', ''V'- Mar '" Hands - I "i^nar.-br ifh.M.D. I [■■ ,i« t inv:-.l the name .>f Uiullrst.m bom Nov. S, 1 3o8. Tap. I,.,rn |ulv-. & bap. Aug;. n>.|S|l. b-.n M. 1 . ,: a,,,! bap. Nov. t lt hnrn May 17. .in.! b:,p Jum- ... 1 ■-.. 

M , .' ,r -'-;,'■';'■ . U, l l ; -' '" " ' '"' |ir " vi:i1 ''> K "- ¥; ' '■'■.-M".l .I*.? lb-din I,.nd,,n. u, 1 . h, Feb. 10, 1 So.,. |i ur . Oct, :,. at Mcssle. Drowned Auf. 6, 1827. iStj, at Hessle. Bur. Feb. ai, at Hessfe. lb... Jany. .7. 1 : -i'.. ■>' 

i-^-,.. Died in tendon, Nov. . 7 , a„ a bur. 31, 1878, \& bur7 14,1867, at ffi etoa, Yorkshire. 1S29. at South wold. .Sji, at Sculeoates. Sculcoates. 

Wilfrfd HuDLEsroN, Elkakob BLANCHE,= U»i8a E. Law, Ag^rsA-Ise, jnHN Gethin. I Fm m elinf, =John Hkkry, Rosa Elizabeth, = Mark Cartwright. ' Dora Mary, 

■■•"['■ June- --.'-■-. " -I bap. N,.v ,..-.. .., II,.,!. I K,,-l,., ,.| [.itlk- bap. July iS, ,:•'•-. r,| HjHincl-on. -I-., Ha., and o.h, ir— ■ f Dm. I bap April q, 1S14. at Christ born Dec. 20. iS V „amlh ap . Ian. la,, |u... ■ I 

"a-t.ns f yorl[. worth. Mar. I A..- ,-:-: liur. .sh.-I.Vnl, Cam- at Uramham, \Y. Ireland. ftorsfall, Esr,., .d I ill... ( Lurch, Ilaro.-ate Mar. Mas- '. . «-/■. at s.,„l I. St.i.r.l.'e. U.R. 1-. ' I'- ■"■ s ■'"' ' '' '■ ■ 

May-, 1880. at UtleShelf..rd. I brid S c 5 hire. K. Yorkshire. Mall, W.R. Vorks. 1867. Clerk in Holy Orders. Yorks. V«k 

Sophie Eleamor, Maud Mary, Wilfrid Henry, Frances Heatrice, 

hap. Feb. :.->. .S'-.S'. at Si bap. April ,., .■'.,,, at l'|.t,. n bap Ma.rl, 1 1. 1872. at St. bap. June :;, iS 7 ^, at South 

Martin's Scarborough Mat'na. Salon. Chad's Shrew. bury StainTey. \\ R \ H 


1G29. November 29th, Md that Joseph Hudlestone Esquire Eliener his wiefe 
Andrew hydlestone hissonne Mrs. Wenefryd Musgrave Wydow Marie 
her daughter Johan Mounsey Wydowe Barnard Wharton Grace his 
wiefe Dorothie Harrison Wydowe were all denounced and declared 
publicly in the church to stand and are excommunicat for their contu- 
macie in not answering according as they are cited. 

1632. June, " decimo die Junii 1632, Md that Joseph Hudleston of Hutton John 
and Elinor his wiefe Mrs. Wenefrid Musgrave and Marie her daugh- 
ter were denounced (?) excommunicat in ye church for their contumacie." 

1632. November 25, Married Mr. Andrew Huddleston of Huton Jone of this 

pish and Dorothy ffleminge of Scirwath. 

1633. September 20, Baptized Mary ye daughter of Mr. Andrew Hudleston of 

Hutton John borne at Skirwath. 

1635. January 1, Baptised Jane the daughter of Mr. Andrew Hudleston of 

Hutton John which childe was xtened at home by Mr. William Mor- 
lande curate here. 

1636. June 23, Baptised Dorothie the daughter of Mr. Andrew Hudleston of 

Hutton Jone. 

1637. November, being All Saints Day was baptised Andrew ye sonne of Mr. 

Andrew Hudleston of Hutton Jone. 

1639. July 22, was baptized Magdalen ye Daughter of Mr. Andrew Hudlestone 

of Hutton Jone. 

Buryls in the church Mrs. Hudlestone. 

1640. September 24, was baptized Joseph ye Sonne of Mr. Andrew Hudles- 

tone of Hutton Jone. 
1646. November 19, Buried Mr. Joseph Hudleston Esq. of Hutton John in the 

(Memorandum. The entries in this Register are most confused and 
irregular during the Civil War and manifestly very imperfect). 
1639. "Ye 22d day of July 1639, was Baptized Magdalen ye daughter of Mr. 

Andrew Hudlestone of Hutton Jone." 
1645, September, "the 1st day of Nov. being all Sts day 1637 was Baptized 

Andrew ye sonne of Mr. Andrew Hudleston of Hutton Jone." 
1662. October 9, " Married Christopher Richmond of Catterlen in the p'ish of 

Newton Esq. and Mrs. Magdalon Hudlestone of Hutton John in this 

pu .1 haueing a Lycense directed unto Will. Morland Rector of this 


1664. Aprill 4th, " Baptized Dudley the sonne of Mr. John Senhouse of Nether 


The same day Baptized Dorothy the daughter of Andrew Huddlestone 

junr. of Hutton John Esq." 

1665. June 9th, "Baptized Jane the daughter of Andrew Hudlestone junior of 

Hutton John Esq." 

1666. September 5, " Baptized Catherine the Daughter of Andrew Hudlestone 

junior of Hutton John, Esq." 
,, November S, " Married Mr. George Sisson of the Parish of Dacre, and 
Mrs. Dorothy Hudlestone of Hutton John within this Parrish." 

1667. September 24, "Baptized Elizabeth the Daughter of Andrew Hudlestone 

of Hutton John junr. Esq." 



1667. December 22 " Buried Elizabeth the Daughter of Andrew Huddleston 

junr. Esq. of Hutton John." 
i66|. ffebruary 3, " Baptized ffrances the Daughter of Andrew Huddlestone 

junior of Hutton John Esquire." 
i64g. ffebruary 3, " Baptized Andrew the Sonne of Andrew Hudleston junio r of 

Hutton John Esq." 
16^. March 2d, The same day Baptized ffardinando Hudlestone ye sonne of 

Mr. Joseph Hudlestone late of Millam now of Hutton John. 
167'j. March 23, " Baptized Marye ye Daughter of An kew Hudlestone junr of 

Hutton John Esq." 

1672. May 24th, "The same day Buried Andrew Hudlestone Senior Esq. of 

Hutton John." 

,, June 6th, "Baptized Anne -the Daughter of Andrew Hudlestone of 

Hutton John Esq." 

1673. August 5th, " The same day alsoe was Baptized Wilfrid the sonne of 

Andrew Huddlestone of Hutton John Esq." 

1674. October 20th, "Baptized William the son of Andrew Hudleston of Hutton 

John Esq." 

1676. April 14th, " Borne and the iSth day Baptized Judeth the Daughter of 

Andrew H udlestone of Hutton John Esq." 
,, July otn "The same day alsoe was Buried Judeth the Daughter of 
Andrew Huddlestone of Hutton John Esq." 

1677. July, Baptized Richard the sonne ofAndretv Hudlestone of Hutton John 


1678. October nth, "Baptized Lawson the sonne of Andrew Hudlestone of 

Hutton John Esq." 
16S1. May 31st, Baptized Bridgett the Daughter of Andrew Hudlestone of 

Hutton John Esq. 
16S3. March 25th, Buried Dorothy the Widow and Relict of Andrew Huddle- 
stone Senior of Hutton John Esq. 
1684. May 15th, Baptized John the Sonne of Andrew Hudlestone of Hutton 

John Ksq. now high-Sherriff of this county of Cumberland. 
16S5. Sept. 15th, Buried John the sonne of Andrew Hudleston of Hutton John 

16S8. Nov. i, Married Mr. John Pardee of Whitbeck-Hall in the Parrish of 

Whitbcc!< And Mis. Dorothy Hudlestone of Hutton John in this Parrish. 
I70y. March 2nd, Married Mr. William Davis of Winder in ye Parish of Barton 

and Mrs. Jane Huddleston of Hutton John in this Parish. 
1706. May S, Buryed Andrew Huddleston of Hutton John Esq. 
1709. December 31st, Buryed Mrs. Katherine Huddleston of Hutton John Vid. 
1716. March 4, Married per Ordinarys License Mr. Ambrose Nicolson of 

Penrith and Mrs. Catherine Hudleston of Hutton John. 
i72§. February 23, Buried Mr. Wilfrid Huddlestone of Hutton John Esq. 
1731. Aug/, for Sept.) 2Sth, Married Mr. Edmund Giison in ye parish of 

fVorkingtor. and Mrs. Isable Huddleston of Hutton John in this 

parish per ordinarys License. 
1733. August 2, Baptized Joice ye Daughter of Andrew Huddlestone of Hutton 

John Esq. 

* Entries in italics are furnished by Mr. W. Hudleston. 



1734. July 25, Baptized Andrew the son of Andrew Huddlestone of Hutton 

John Esquire. 

1735. September 1st, Baptized Mary ye Daughter of Andrew Huddleston of 

Hutton John Esq. Privat. 
., „ 3, Buryed ,, ,, Dr. „ „ ,, ,, ,, aforesd. 

1736. Deer. 23, Baptised William (he son oj Andrew Hudleston of Hutton John 

Esq r. 
173J-. March 2, Baptized Mary ye Daughter of Andrew Huddleston of Hutton 

John Esq. 
1739. May 20, Baptized Julian Margaret the Daughter of Andrew Huddleston 
of Hutton John Esq. Priv. 

1739- J une 1 5 Reed. &c Julian Margaret ye Daughter of Esq. 

1741. May 14, Baptized Isabel the Daughter of Andrew Huddleston of Hutton 

John Esq. 
1743. August 15th, Interr'd Mr. John Huddleston of Penrith a Roman Catho- 

174S. August 29th, Baptized Catherine the Daughter of Andrew Huddleston of 

Hutton John Esq. 
1 757. January 25, Buryed Catherine ye Daughter of Andrew Huddleston of 

Hutton John Esq. 
1757. March 6th, Buried Julia ye Daughter of Andrew Huddleston of Hutton 

John Esq. 

1766. July 2d, Buiied William ye son of Andrew Hudleston of Hutton John Esq. 

1780. August 23rd, Buried Andrew Hudleston Esq. of Hutton John in this 

Parish: One of his Maje^tys Justices of the Peace Recorder of the 

City of Carlisle &c. Aged lxxvii S.P.T. His remains were interred 

in the Church under the blue stone that now lays contiguous to the 

Stone Step which leads to the East Window in the south Isle. 

173S. Oct. 26, Buried Miss Mary Huddleston of Hutton John in the parish of 

Greystoke aged 50 years. 
1796. July 4th, Bom and Baptized Andrew Fleming Son of Andrew Hudleston 

Esq. and Elizabeth his wife of Hutton John. 
1S21. Febry. 7th, At Greystoke Andrew Huddleston Esq. of Hutton John 

Buried aged S7. 
1830. Augst. 23d, Elizabeth Hudleston Widow of Andrew Huddleston of Hutton 
John Died at Temple Sowerby Buried Augst. 23d 1S30 inside Grey- 
stoke Church near vestry door aged 77. 
1S61. September 9th, Andrew Fleming Hudleston of Hutton John buried aged G5. 
1S65. November 12, Baptized Edmund son of William and I, aura Henrietta 

Hudleston of Hutton John. 
1S69, September 30, Baptized Sjbel daughter of William and l.aura Henrietta 

Hudleston of Hutton John. 
1S71. March 11, Baptized William son of William and Laura Henrietta Hudle- 

stone of Hutton John. 
1S75. Jany. 2S, Baptized Gilbert son of William and Laura Henrietta Hudle- 
ston of Hutton John. 

Extract from Kirkland Register. 

1633. October 7, Maria Huddlestone filia Andrew Hudelston and uxoris 



Extracts from Kivkby Thorc Register. 

1692. January 20, Elioner Huddleston D. of Mr. John Huddleston and Elizabeth 

his wife was bapt. at K.C. on Sun. 
1694. January 29, Elione Huddleston of Hale wasburyedin K.C. in woolen only 

being private bap. the last day by me T. M. in Mr. John Huddle- 

stons house. 

Extracts from Millom Register. 

1670. March 2, Ferdinando ye son of Joseph Huddleston Esq. baptized the 

second day of March 1G70. 
1700. Septembr. 13, Joseph Hudleston of Millom Castle Esq. C. burd. 
1714. March 2i, Madm. Bridget Hudleston ye Widow of Joseph of Millom Castle 

C. burd. 
1 70S. May 27, Mr. Roger Askew a Dockter of Physick in the Parish of Kirkby 

Kendall and Mrs. Bridett Hudleston of Millom Castle in this Parish 

she was Daughf to Andrew Hudleston of Hutton John married. 

Extracts from Barton Register. 

1703. May 12, Mr. William Davis buried. 

171S. August 20, Mr. Ffrances Huddleston late of Penrith buried. 

1739. Feby. 2S, Mrs. Jane Davis of Winder Hall, Widdow was buried 

Extract from Scaleby Register. 

1742. August 5, The Revd. Mr. Currant (wen) Hudleston and Mrs. Ellinor 

Dove married. 

Extracts from Kelston Register. 

1G81. February 11, Helena d. of John Harington Esq. and Helena his wife 
born Feb. 10th. 

1710. July $1, Laicson Hudleston Master of Arts and Fellow of Queen's Col- 

lege Oxford was inducted into the Rectory of Kelston iy Mr. John 
Chapman Rector of Weston. 

171 1. February 19, Lawson Hudleston and Helena Harrington mar. 

1713. August iC, Lawson the son of Lawson Hudleston born July 12. bap. 

1714. November 24, John the son of Lawson Hudleston born Nov. 22 bap. 
1716. November 30, William the son of Lawson Huddleston Rector was 


1715. February 2S, Harington the son of Lawson Hudleston Rector bap. 

1742. August 12, Helena daughter of Mr. John Huddleston bap. 

1743. April 21, The Revd. Mr. Archdeacon Hudleston burd. 

1744. June 3, Betty dr. of Mr. John and Elizabeth Huddleston bap. 



1745. May 24, John son of Mr. John and Elizabeth Huddleston bap. 

1746. October 3, Richard son of Mr. John and Elizabeth Hudleston bap. 

1747. October G, Dioness daur. of Mr John and Elizabeth Hudleston bap. 
174s. December 22, Mrs. Huddleston Widdow of Mr. Archdeacon Huddleston 

„ January 9, Mr. John Hudleston burd. 
'759- January 4, Rev. Thomas Green and Elizab Hudleston mard. by Lie. 

1765. February 9, Elizabeth daughter of Wm. and Mary Nash bap. 

1766. March 5, The Rev. Mr. Wm. Hudleston of Wells burd. 

1770. December 10, The Rev. Charles Dix of Walcot Batchelor and Helena 

Hudleston of Kelston Spinster marr. by Lie. 
1772. December 3, Elizabeth widow of the Rev. Thomas Green burd. 
1779, August 16, John son of John and Susan Hudleston bap. 

1752. October 14, John son of John and Susan Hudleston burd. 

,, February 13, Frances daur. of John and Susanna Hudleston bap. 

1753. November 4. George Hulbert of Walcot Widower and Diones Hudleston 

of Kelston Spinster Mar. by Lie. 

1754. June 9, Lawson son of John and Susanna Hudleston bap. 

17S7. June 27, Mary daur. of John and Susanna Hudleston born June 9 baptiz. 
1793. February 26, Richard Hudlestcne of Kelston Batchelor and Elizabeth 

Nash of Kelston Spinster married by Lie. 
1795. November 17, Mary Hudleston late of Shaftsbury, Dorset, Widow of the 

late Rev. William Hudleston of Wells was buried. 
1S06. November 13, Richard Hudleston Esq. aged 60 burd. 
1S10. February 15, Elizabeth Brewer was buried at Kelston aged 64. 
1S20. March 3, Charlotte Hudleston, Clifton, aged 13 buried at Kelston. 

,, April 2S, Helena Hudleston, Clifton, aged 19 buried at Kelston. 
1835. March 13, John Huddlestone Esq. Laura Place, Bath, buried aged S6 

1S44. May 23, Dionis Elizabeth Hudleston died at Shaftsbury aged 93 buried at 

Kelston as of Norfolk Crescent, Bath. 
1S55. July 6, William Hudleston, Bath, buried. 
18SS. October 12, Annette Clara Hudleston, Guildford, Surrey, aged S5 buried. 

Extracts from Kendal Register. 

1682. November 6, Edward son of Mr. William Huddlestone of Stricklandgate 

1704. January 23, Mr. William Hudlestone of Selside buried. 
172S. January 7, Catherine Huddlestone of Strickland Widow buried. 
1741. February 24, Eliza Hudlestone of Kirkland Spinster buried. 

Extracts from Register of St. Nicholas Church, Whitehaven. 

1699. July 26, Mr. John Parke Gentelman of Whitbeck in ye County of Cum- 

berland ...... buried. 

1700. Dec. 26, Wilfferid Hudleston and Joyce Curwen by Lie. . mar. 




1705. May 1 1, Joyce ye Daugr. of Wilffarid Hudleston . . burJ. 
,, June 14, Andrew ye son of Wilfarid Hudleston . . chris. 

1706. Aug. 30, Jane the daugr. of Wilf. and Joyce Hudleston . bap. 

1707. Apr. 14, Jane the daugr. of Mr. Wilfa. and Mrs. Joyce Hudlston burd. 
,, Dec. 2, Isabel the daugr. of Mr. Wilford and Mrs. Joyce Hudlston bap. 
,, Dec. 27, Katherine the daugr. of Mr. Wilfad. and Mrs. Joyce Hdlston burd. 

170S. Jan. 19, Curwen the son of Mr. VVilfd. and Mrs. Joyce Hudlston bap. 

173S. Nov. 30, Joyce Daugr. of the Revd. Mr. Curwen Hudleston . chris. 

,, Dec 1 ". 7, Elizabeth wife of the Revd. Mr. Curwen Hudleston 

min r . of this chapel was .... bur. 

1745. Deer. 19, Wilfred son of the Reverend Curwen Hudleston . born. 

1748. Feb. 2, Ellioner ye wife of ye Revd. Curwen Hudleston 

1747. Aug 30, Isable ye Daughter of ye Rev. Curwen Hudleston 

1752. Nov. 6, Isabel ye Wife of Mr. Edmund Gibson 

1771. March 27, The Reverend Curwen Hudleston minister 
,, June 17, The Rev. Wilfred Hudleston &c. and Elizabeth Airey &c mar. 
,, Aug 19, William Shammon of the Parish of Alderstoke in the 

County of Southampton Lieut, in the Navy and Joyce Hudle- 
ston &c. ...... mar. 

1772. April 19, Curwen son of the Rev. Wilfred Hudleston . . bur. 

1773. July 25 or 27, Wilfrid the son of the Revd. Wilfred Hudleston . chris. 

1774. Oct 6, Sarah of the Rev. Wilfrid and Eliz. Hudleston Mr.* . chris. 

1775. Dec. 25, Eleanor of the Revd. Wilfrid and Eliz. Hudleston Mr. chris. 

1776. Aug. ig, Wilfred of the Revd. Wilfred Hudleston Mr. . bur. 

1777. Oct. S, Mary of the Revd. Wilfred and Eliz. Hudleston Mr. . chris. 
1779. Jany. 3, Andrew son of ye Revd. Wilfrid Hudleston and Eliz. 

his wife. . .... chris. 

17S0. Deer. 2, Elizabeth of the Revd. Wilfrid and Elizabeth Hudleston. chris. 

1752. Mar. 1G, Joyce of the Revd. Wilfid and Eliz. Hudleston Mr. . chris. 

1753. Sept. 2S, Margaret of the Revd. Wilfred and Eliz. Hudleston Mr. chris. 

1754. Dtcr. 10, Isabella of the Revd. Wilfred and Eliz. Hudleston Mr. chris. 

1756. Nov. 15, Ann of the Revd. Wilfrid and Eliz. Hudleston. . chris. 

1757. Jany. 31, Margaret daughter of the Revd. Wilfrid Hudleston. bur. 
,, Mar. 22, Ann of the Revd. Wilfred Hudleston . . bur. 

1790. Oct. 30, Margaret of the Revd. Wilfrid and Elizabeth Hudle- 
ston ...... chris. 

1795. Aug. 14. Miss Joyce Hudleston of Hutton John . . bur. 
,, Dec. 1, William Shammon .... bur. 

1796. July 5, Mrs. Mary Hudleston Hutton John . . bur. 
1S03. April 27, John Hudleston Gent. Died the 24th aged 55. Church 

Str. ...... bur. 

1S22. Oct. 6, Isabella Huddleston, Duke Street aged Si . . bur. 

1S51. Nov. 2S, Andrew Hudleston, Lowther Street aged 7S. . bur. 

Extracts from Workington Register. 

March 10, Katherine Hudleston daughter of Mr. Wilfrid Huddleston of 
Workington bap. 

* For " minister." 



1702. March 19, Margrett daughter of Wilfrid Hudleston of Workington bap. 

1703. Novr. 8, Margrett daughter of Mr. Wilfrid Hudleston"of Workington 

bap. (?) 
1 719. June 24, Tho. Cunven of Workington Gent. burd. 
1739. February 10, Mrs. Joyce Huddleston of Workington burd. 

Extract from Camerton Register. 

1706. October 14, Mr. Cunven Hudleston Clerk and Mrs. Elizabeth Cook of 
Workington marryd ye fourteenth day of October 1736. 


Copy of old Memoranda among the papers at Hutton John. 

The several ages of all ye children of Andrew Hudleston Esq. second son of 
Sir John Hudleston of Milium Castle Knt. and Mary his wife daughter and one 
of ye coheirs of Cuthbert Hutton of Hutton John Esq. married about St. Andrews 
day 1564 with their several! places of their birch. 

1565. Joseph eldest son and heir borne Nov. ye 21 at Seaton in Milium in Cum- 


1566. Dorothy borne abt Michlas in Milium, Cumbd. 

1567. Joyce born abt Tiinity Sunday at Whitcham in Milium, Cumberland. 
156S. John born abt Lady Day at Whitcham in Milium, Cumberland. 
1571. Edmond born at Whitcham in Milium, Cumbd. 

1575. Bridget born abt St. Pancras Day at Askham in Westmorland. 

1576. Byham born abt Holyrood Day at Muncaster in Cumbd. 
157S. William born ye 27 May at Seaton in Milium, Cumbd. 

1 581. Andrew born abt Michlas at Muncaster in Cumbd. 

15S3. Richard born abt a month after Michlas at Ffarrington Hall in Lane. 

The severall ages of ye Children of Joseph Hudleston (son and heir of Andrew) 
and Ellinor his Wife daughter of Cuthbert Sisson of Dacre Gent, married ye 

1601. Mary elde-t daughter (who dyed an infant) was born on ye 16th of Oct 

being Tuesday about 11 of ye clock. 

1602. Mary ye second daughter born Dec. ye io'h being Fryday. 

1603. Andrew born ye 27th Nov. betwixt 11 and 12 in ye forenoon being Advent 

1605. Dorothy born Oct. 19th betwixt 8 and 9 at night being a Monday. 



1607. Jane born March ye 14th betwixt 4 and 5 in ye afternoone being a Monday. 

1608. John born ye 15th Apr. betwixt 3 and 4 in the morng being Friday. 

1610. Richard born March ye 22nd being; Wednesday. 

161 1. Cuthbert born Dec. 30th, betwixt 3 and 4 in ye afternoone being- Monday. 

1612. Margaret born Oct. 19th betwixt 2 and 3 in ye morng being Sunday. 

1613. Joyce born Jany. 1st betwixt 2 and 3 in the morng being Saturday. 

1616. Bridget born ye 15th July 9 and 10 at night being Monday. 

1617. William born Nov. 2Sth betwixt 3 and 4 in ye afternoone being Tuesday. 

1619. Elizabeth (ye eldest dyed) was born May 29th betwixt 2 and 3 in ye 


1620. Fardinando borne October ye 4th betwixt 7 and S at night being Wednes- 

1622. Hellen borne Dec. 23rd betwixt 2 and 3 in ye morg being Monday. 
1625. Elizabeth borne March ye iGth betwixt 11 and 12 at night being Wednes- 
Andrew Hudleston and Dorothy his Wife Second Daughter of Daniel Fleming 
of Skirwath Esquier Married November ye 25, 1632. 
Their Children. 

1633. Mary borne at Skirwath Sept. 26. 

1634. Jane borne on New Years Daie. 

1636. Dorothy on Midsummer Day. 

1637. Andrew on All Saints Day. 

1639. ' Magdalen on ye 22 July. 

1640. Joseph on ye 2nd September. 

1642. Agnass in ye latter end of Summer. 

1643. Bridget November iS. 

1644. John August ye 7th. 
1647. Richard April ye 16th. 

The severall Ages of the Children of Andrew Hudleston (sonn and heire of 
Andrew) and Katherine his wife daughter of Sir Wilfred Lawson of Isell Knight 
Married Sept. ye 22nd Anno Domini 1662. 

1664. Dorothy born April ye 4th. 

1665. Jane born June ye 15th. 

1666. Katherine August 31st 

1667. Elizabeth dyed an infant. 
166S. Frances was born Jany. 23rd. 

1669. Andrew Jany. 25th abt. ioo'Clock at night. 

1670. Mary born March 2S or thereabouts. 

1672. Ann born May 26th abt 9 o'clock at night being Sunday. 

1673. Wilfred and a child still born was born July 2Sth abt. 7 o'CIock at night. 

1674. William borne Oct iSth abt. 1 o'CIock at night. 

1676. Judith dyed an Infant. 

1677. Richard borne June 30th abt. S o'CIock being Saturday. 

1675. Lawson borne Oct. 26th. 

ifiSt. Bridget borne on Whitson Tuesday. 



16S2. One still born Oct. 27th. 

16S4. John Born May ye nth abt. 6 oclock in ye afternoon being Sunday. 

Herein are inserted ye Ages of all ye Children of Andrew Hudleston and Mary 
his Wife. Of Joseph Hudleston and Ellinor his Wife. Of Andrew Hudleston and 
Dorothy his Wife. And of Andrew Hudleston and Katherine his Wife being ffour 
generations litterally taken out of a book writt by my Fathers owne hands. 

A. Hudleston Junr., 

May ye 1st 1703. 


Will of Andrew Huddleston 1601. 

In the name of God Amen this Fourthe daye of Maye in the yeare of or Lord God 
1601 and in the three and fouretythe yeare of the Raigne of or Sovraigne Ladye 
Elizabeth by the grace of God of Englande France & Irelande Ouene Defender of 
the faythe &c. I Andrew Huddleston of Farrington in the Countye of Lane. Es- 
quyer beinge p'fect and of good and sound remembrance I thanke God consideringe 
the uncertentye of this transytorye lyffe and mindinge as well the quyetinge of my 
conscyence as alsoe the dysposinge of my worldlye goodes soe as I may be in 
readyness when yt shall please God to call me to his m'cye doe constitute ordeyn 
and make this my last Will and Testam. in manner & forme followinge And 
hereby I doe utterlye renounce and make frustrate all former Wylls & Testamts 
wch I have made or caused to be made before this daye And firste & pryncy- 
pallye I give and bequeathe my soule unto Almightye God my Maker & Redemer 
and unto all the blessed & holye companye of Heaven and my body to be buryed 
in Xyan buryall where yt shall please God to take me owt of this worlde And as 
concernynge my worldlye goods my will and minde is that the charges of my 
buryall shall be taken out of the same wch buryall to be made in such semelye 
sorte as shall be thoughte moste fytte & convenyent for my degree at the dys- 
crecon of my Executors and Marye my Wyffe And out of the reste of my sayd 
goodes I do give and bequeathe unto the said Marye my Wyffe one silver cupp 
wth a cover beinge gwylte wch was given her by Quene Marye Item I doe geve 
unto my Godson Mr. Harrye Huddleston one olde angell To John Towne xs. To 
Henry Bybye xs. Itm to evrye one wch shall be my srvante at the tyme of my 
decease one halfe years waige Itm I doe give to Hary Leece & Thorns Waters 
xs. other in money Itm. I do give to to Katyn Dandye xxs. in money Itm I doe give 
to little Andrew Charnocke my grandchild vilb xiiis iiiid in money and to ly tie 
Mary Throoghadd my grandchylde iiilb vis viiid in money I ordeyne constitute & 
make my verey good cozen Edwarde Standyshe of Standyshe Esquycr Andrew 
Huddleston my Sonne and William Cheetam my s'vante man Executrs of this 
my last Will and Testamt trustinge they will execute & pforme the same in all 



thinges as I have appoynted & sett downe And unto the sayd Edward Standyshe 
I doe give five rr.rkes and to the sayd William Cheetam xls. in money in regard 
of the paynes they are like to take abowte the execution thereof And I desier the 
Right Worshipful my verey good cosin Sir Edmond Huddleston Knight and my 
Nephewe Willm Huddleston Esquyer to be Supvysors hereof & to see that my 
sayd Executors doe pforme & execute this my sayd laste Will & Testament in all 
things as my specyall truste is they will doe. 
Wytness hereof : — 

Richard Farrington. 

Arthur Dawson. 

Willm Dandye. 

Willm Gradell. 
Proved in the Consistory Court of Chester the nth day of June 1601 by Andrewe 
Huddleston the Son and Willm Cheetam two of the Executors. 

Will of Cuthbcrt Hudlcsion 1637. 

Memorand. that Cuthbert Hudleston of the Cittie of Dublin Gent, the seaventh 
and twentie of July Anno Dm. 1637 departed this life and made his Will nuncu- 
pative in manner and forme followinge Inprimis he did give and bequeath one 
box of Writinges securitie for One Hundred poundes remaineinge att Chester to 
be equally devided amongst his Brothers and Sisters deductinge onely six poundes 
for Signetts to his Father and his two Uncles every Signett Forty Shillings and 
all ye rest of his estate whatsoevr he did give unto Ellinor Hudleston his wife 
yere being yen and there p'sent Rowland Greene and Marie Dermott and ye said 
Ellinor his said Wife. 

Rowland Greene Marie Dermott md her Mcke. On the iGth day of August 1637 
Admon with the Will annexed was granted to Ellinor Hudleston Widow the 
Relict at Chester. 

Will of Andrew Huddleston 1672. 

In the name of God Amen I Andrew Huddleston of Hutton Jon in the County of 
Cumberland Esq. being sicke and weake in body but of perfecte Memory and 
L'nderstandinge blessed be God for the same Doe consideringe the Mortality of 
all mankind ordaine and make this my last Will and Testamt in maner and forme 
followinge (that is to say) Ffirst I give and bequeath my Soule into the hands of 
God my Almighty Creator and Continuall protector trustinge in his mercy for the 
Salvacon thereof thorow the merritts of Jesus Christ my most blessed Redeemer 
And my fraile body 1 comend itt to the Earth from whence itt was att first taken to 
bee buried in the Parrish Church of Graistocke in the County aforesaid in such 
decent and Christian maner as to my Executrix hereafter named shall thinke fitt 
And as for that Outward and temporal Estate wherewith God in his greate mercy 
hath blessed me I doe dispose thereof in this wise (viz) whereas I have Already 
given to my daughter Annas Huddleston and to her heires for Ever in part of her 
Child's porcon an Annuity or yearly Rent Charge of Flight pounds to be issuing 



and goinge out of one demesne Messuage or tenemt called Milne Rigg in the 
County aforesaid I doe further give and bequeath unto my said daughter Annas 
Huddleston in full for her Child's porcon the sum of One hundred and fifty pounds 
Lawfull Money of England Item whereas I have already given to my daughter 
Bridgett Huddleston the sum of ffifty pounds in part of her Child's porcon I doe 
farther give and bequeath to my said daughter Bridget Huddleston in full for her 
Child's porcon the sum of One hundred and fifty pounds Law full Money of Eng- 
land provided that Joseph Huddleston her Husband shall settle and secure upon 
and to my said daughter Bridgett Huddleston the sum of thirty pounds p'annm on 
Jointure duringe the life of my said daughter Bridgett Huddleston within one yeare 
next after my decease Item whereas I have already given unto my Sonn Richard 
Huddleston the sum of One hundred and Ninety pounds in part of his Child's 
porcon I doe further give and bequeath unto my said sonn Richard Huddleston 
in full for his Child's porcon the sum of Tenn pounds Lawfull Money of England 
Item I give and bequeath unto my Brother William Huddleston the sum of Twenty 
pounds Lawfull Money of England Item I give and bequeath unto my daughter 
Jane Crackenthorpe the sum of ffifty pounds Lawfull Money of England Item I 
give and bequeath unto my Brother John Huddleston the sum of Tenn Shillings 
to bye a ringe Item I give and bequeath to my Brother William Huddleston 
the sum of tenn Shillings Lawfull Money of England Item I give and bequeath 
unto my Sister Ellenor Skelton tenn shillings Lawfull Money of England to bye 
a ringe Item I give and bequeath unto my grandchild Andrew Huddleston of Hutton 
Jon the sum of tenn shillings to bye a ringe Item I give and bequeath unto my grand- 
child Dorothy Huddleston the sum of tenn shillings to bye a ringe Item I give 
and bequeath unto every of my Sonns and Daughters and to every of my Sonns in 
Law and daughters in Law to each of them tenn Shillings to by a ringe Item I give 
and bequeath unto my servts Lancelot Harrison andTamar Smith to each of them 
five shillings Lawfull Money of England All wch said Sums to be raised and paid 
out of my personel Estate by my Executrix hereafter named within tow yeares next 
after my decease Item I give and bequeath unto my said grandchild Andrew Hud- 
dleston my Leads (sic) in the Seller Item I give and bequeath unto my said grand- 
child Andrew Huddleston tow of my best Arkes Item whereas my Sonn Andrew 
Huddleston became bound to me by bonds for the paymt of tow hundred pounds to 
me or my assigns att a certain day by past My Will is that my Executrix hereafter 
named shall deliver in the said bonds Uncancelled to my said Sonn Andrew Huddle- 
ston within one month after my decease Item whereas my said Sonn Andrew 
Huddleston became bound by my appointemt in one bond|of tow hundred pounds 
for the paymt of ffifty pounds to my Sonn Joseph Huddleston and ffifty pounds 
to my Sonn John Huddleston within a short time after my decease which said 
bonds doth now remain in my Custody My Will is that my Executrix hereinafter 
named shall within one month next after my decease deliver in uncancelled the 
said bonds to my said Sonn Andrew Huddleston provided that att the delivery 
thereof my said Sonn Andrew Huddleston shall scale and deliver to my said Sonn 
Richard Huddleston one bond of one hundred pounds for the paymt f ffifty 
pounds to my said Sonn Richard Huddleston his Executors or Assignes within 
tow months more after my said Sonn Andrew Huddleston hath received one 
Hundred pounds of his generall ffine dew to be paied from my Rents upon my de- 
cease Item my Will is that my Exeeutrix hereafter named shall deliver in uncan. 
celled one bond of one hundred pounds to my said Sonn John Huddleston which said 
bond my said Sonn John Huddleston became bound in for the paymt thereof to 



my said Sonn Richard Huddleston Item I give and bequeath unto my deare and 
Lovinge Wife Dorothy Huddleston all the rest of my goods and Chattells whatso- 
ever Item I doe hereby make nominate constitute and appoint my said deare and 
Lovinge Wife Dorothy Huddleston the sole Executrix of this my Last Will and 
Testamt. appointing and desiring my Sonn in Law John Senhouse of Netherhall 
in the County of Cumberland Esq. my Sonn in Law Christopher Richmond of 
Highead Castle in the County aforesaid Esq. my Sonn in Law George Sisson of 
Penrith in the County of Cumberland Gent and my Sonn John Huddleston of 
Hundliow in the County of Westmerland to bee the Supervisors and Overseers of 
the same In Witness whereof I the said Andrew Huddleston have to these 
presents put my hand and seale the Thirteenth day of May 1672. 

Andrew Huddleston 

Sealed signed and delivered 

in ye psens of 
George Sisson jur. 
William Huddleston. 
And. Huddlesston jur. 

Seal in red wax very fresh, Arms of Huddleston fretty with crest, two hands 
grasping hattrel. 

Endorsed Testamt. and Inventar. bonor. Andrew Huddleston de Hutton Jon 
Esq. Pro. 30 die Julii 1672. 

Will of John Huddleston 1693. 

In the Name of God Amen. 

I John Huddleston* of the Parish of St. Mary Le Strand als : the Savoy in the 
County of Middlesex Gentleman being of perfect sense and of sound and disposing 
mind and Memory doe revoke all Will and Wills by me made And doe make 
this my last Will and Testament in manner and forme following. 

First I bequeath my soul into the hands of God my Creator and to Jesus Christ 
my Saviour and Redeemer trusting in the merrits of his death and pas6ion to 
gaine Salvacon My body to the Earth of which it was framed to be decently 
buryed according to the good Will of my Executor hereafter named willing and 
requiring that my said Executor shall be first paid and allowed as well for his 
owne paines and troubles as for what Charges and Expenses he shall or may be at 
in Executing this my Will and Alsoe indempnifyed and kept harmlesse for the 

As for my worldly goods which I dye possessed of I give and bequeath them in 
manner and forme following. 

First I give and bequeath unto my well beloved brother Wiliam Huddleston one 
guinea to buy a mourning Ring Item I give unto my deare Sister Hellen Skelton five 
pounds as a token of my brotherly affeccon Item I give unto my nephew Andrew 
Huddlestone of Hutton John in the County of Cumberland one guinea for a 
mourning iing and alsoe to his Eldest Son one guinea for a mourning ring As for 
all the rest of my reall and personal Estate which God hath blessed me withall or 

* Father Huddleston of " Boscobel " memory, chaplain at Somerset House to 
Queen Dowager Katherine. He confessed Charles II on his death bed. 



shall dye possessed of I give and bequeath it all to my Well-beloved friends Edward 
Burdet of Grayes Inne A. Esqre in the County of Middlesex and Francis Canning 
of the Inner Temple London Gentleman And now I doe hereby make constitute and 
appoint Martin Pinkard of the Parish of St Clement Deanes in the countye of 
Middlesex Gentleman my sole Executor of this My last Will and Testament And 
further I doe give and bequeath unto the said Martin Pinkard the summe of five 
guineas In vvitnesse whereof I the said John Huddleston to this my last Will and 
Testament have set my hand and seale this thirtieth day of January one thousand 
six hundred ninety three four. John Huddleston. 

Signed sealed published and declared by the Testator in the presence of Ben- 
jamine Moore William Rumley Jordan Metham The marke of Ellen Rigby The 
Marke of Anne Arters. 

Proved at London in the Prerogative Court of Canterbury by Martin Pinkard 
September 12th 169S. 

Copied from a copy at Hutton John, endorsed "Copy of Mr. John Hudleston's 
Will," addressed " Mr. Andrew Huddleston at the Unicorne in St. Martin's Court 
in St. Martin's Lane in the feildes." 

Will of Joseph Hudleston 1698. 

In the name of the ffather Son and Holy Ghost to whome be all Glory Amen I 
Joseph Hudleston of Millom Castle in the County of Cumberland Esqr being 
weak of body but of sound & pfect mind and memory trusting in the mercye of 
God and relying upon the meritts of Christ my dear Saviour doe make this my 
last Will and Testamt in manner and forme following ffirst I recommend my soule 
to the mercyes of Almighty God my most mercifull ffather through the meritts of 
Jesus Christ my Redeemr by the satisfaccon of Jesus Christ my Comforter my 
body I Recommend to my dear Executrix hereinafter named to be buryed with 
Xtian buryall in hopes of its Resurreccon to imortal life And as for that Tem- 
porall Estate whereof God hath made me his Stewd I dispose in manner and 
forme following ffirst I give and bequeath unto Joyce Holtby my Sister the sume 
of Twenty Shillings for a Legacy and in full discharge and barr of her Tytle to 
any pte of my psonall Estate. Item I give and bequeath unto my Nephew Coll. 
Richd Kirkby the sume of Twenty Shillings for a Legacy and in full discharge and 
barr of his Tytle to any pte of my p'sonall Estate Item I give and bequeath unto my 
neece Elizabeth the sum of One Hundred pounds for a Legacy and in full dis- 
charge and barr of her Tytle to any pte of my psonall Estate. Item I give unto my 
Godson Mr. Wm. Kirkby of Beck two Hundred pounds for a Legacy the Interest 
whereof onely tobepdtoSr Wm Pennington of Muncaster Hall Barrtt and Richard 
Patricksonof Calder Abbey Esqr att the End and Expiracon of two yeares next 
after my decease desireing them to take care that the Interrest be yearly payd and 
Imploy'd for and towds his Maintenance and Educacon untill he attaine the age of 
Twenty one yeares And in Case the sd Mr. Wm. Kirkby dye before he attaine the 
Age of Twenty one yeares Then my will & mind is that the sd Two Hundred pounds 
shall remaine in the Hands of my Executx hereafter named by her to be disposed of 
as she shall think fitt. Item I give unto Cozen John Parke of Whitbeck the Sume 
of ffifty pounds for a Legacy And unto Cozen Dorothy Parke the Sume of Thirty 
pounds and to my Godson Hudleston Parke the Sume of Ten pounds and unto my 
three Cozens Katherinc Park Bridgett Park & Lawrence Park the Sume of Ten 



Hounds for Legacyes to be equally devided amongst them Itm I give and bequeath 
unto Cozen Humphrey Senhouse the Sume of Thirty pounds and unto Eleanor his 
wife the Sume of Twenty pounds for Legacyes Item I give and bequeath the Sume 
of one Hundred pounds for and towards the Maintenance of a School within the 
pish of Millom for Ever To be pd att the End of Two yeares next after my de- 
cease by my Executrix here after named to the Twelve Men or Church Jury then 
Elected for the sd pish the Interrest whereof by ym and their Successors to be paid 
yearly on Good fryday to such Schoolemaster as they or the major part of ym 
shall Elect and and make choice of Itm I give and bequeath unto all my Broth's 
and Sistrs the Sume of Twenty Shillings Apeice for buying each A Mourning Ring 
Itm I give and bequeath unto my Cozen Henry Blencow and Dorothy his wife 
Richd Hudleston and Bridgett his wife and Andrewe Hudleston the sume of 
Twenty Shillings to buy each A Mourning Ring Itm I give and bequeath unto 
my three Cozens Jane Katherine and Anne Hudleston the Sume of Ten Shillings 
each of ym to buy Mourning Rings Itm I give and bequeath unto Cozen Mary 
Senhouse Ambrose Nicholson Richd Crackenthroppe and his wife the Sume of 
Twenty Shillings each of ym to buy Mourning Rings Itm I give unto my Godson 
Christopher Ciackenthroppe the sume of fforty shillings for A Legacy Itm I give & 
bequeath unto Mr. William Wells the Sume of Twenty Shillings and to his wife 
Ten Shillings for Legacyes Itm I give unto Cozen Peter Senhouse Twenty Shillings 
and to his son John the Sume of ffive pounds And to his three other Children each 
of them Twenty Shillings for Legacyes Itm I give and bequeath unto \\ illiam of 
Hodgshon my Servt the Sume of Twenty pounds for A Legacy Itm I give unto 
Thomas Mickleton my Servt the Sume of Twenty Shillings for a Legacy Itm I 
give unto John Dixon and John Nickolson my Servtseach ten shillings for Legacyes. 
Item my Will and mind is that none of ye Legacyes herein above bequeathed 
shall be pd to any Legatee untill two yeares be expired next after my decease 
unlesse it be the pleasure of my Executrix here after named to pay the same 
Itm all the rest of my psonall Estate Goods & Chattels of wt kind nature and 
quality soever (paying my debts Legacyes and ffunerall Expences thereout) I 
give and bequeath unto my loving wife Bridgett Hudleston whome by these 
presents I doe nominate constitute and appointe Sole Exec rx of this my last Will 
& Testament and doe hereby nominate and appoint Andrew Hudleston Esq 
George Sisson Gen. my Brothrs Cozen Humphrey Senhouse and William Hodg- 
son to be supravisors of this my Will desireing them to assist my Executrix above 
mentioned if she Entreat them or any of ym In Witnesse whereof I the sd Joseph 
Hudleston hereunto sett my hand and Seale the Twenty ninth day of July in the 
Tenth year of the Reign of our Soveraigne Ld Wm the third over Engld &c. 
and in the year of our Ld God one Thousand Six Hundred and ninety & eight 
(Joseph Hudleston) Signed Sealed and published in the presence of us — Ro. 
Law John Fox Wm Hodgshon. 

Callacoe fca fideli concordat hac 

Copia cum Testamto Orh debite eximinat. 

Will of Bridget Hudleston 17 14. 

In the name of God Amen. I Bridget Hudleston of Millom Castle in the County 
of Cumberland Widdow being of perfect and disposeing mind and Memory 
(praised be God) do make this my last will and Testament of for and concerning 



my Goods and Chattells and personal Estate in maner ffollowing — That is to say 
my mind and will is that my Just Debts and ffunerall expenses shall first be paid 
and Discharged Item it is my will and mind and I do hereby give and bequeath 
vnto my Sister Jane Crackenthorp Widdow to be paid her yearly and Every 
Year Dureing her natural life by my Executor hereafter named the sume of ffive 
pounds for a Legacy in full discharge and barr of her title to any part of my 
personal Estate Item I give and bequeath vnto my Sister Dorothy Sisson Widdow 
the sume of twenty shillings for a Legacy in fuil discharge and barr of her title to 
any part of my personal Estate Item I give and bequeath vnto my Sister Agnes 
Latus Widdow the sume of Twenty Shillings for a Legacy in full discharge and 
barr of her title to any part of my personal Estate Item I give and bequeath vnto 
my Nephew Andrew Hudleston Eldest son of my brother Andrew Hudleston late 
of Hutton-john in the said County of Cumberland Esq. Deceased the sume of 
Twenty Shillings for a Legacy in full discharge and Barr of his title to any part 
of my Estate whatsoever Item I give and bequeath vnto my Neice Eleanor Sen- 
house wife of my Nephew Humphrey Senhouse the sume of One Hundred pounds 
for a Legacy Item I give and bequeath vnto my God Daughter Bridget Senhouse 
Daughter of my said Nephew Humphrey Senhouse my large silver posset Cupp 
and Cover and the sume of One Hundred poinds for a Legacy Item I give and 
bequeath vnto Joseph Richard Senhouse Eldest Son of my Nephew Humphrey 
Senhouse my large Silver Tankard the two large Silver Salvers all with my Coat 
of Arms on and also my set of Silver Castors fur a Legacy reserving to his ffather 
my Nephew Humphrey Senhouse the full vse and benefitt of them dureing his life 
Item I give and bequeath vnto Johanna Senhouse the Younger Daughter of my 
Nephew Humphrey Senhouse my little silver posset cupp and the sume of 
One Hundred pounds for a Legacy Item I give and bequeath vnto Humphrey 
Senhouse Second Son of my Nephew Humphrey Senhouse the sume of 
One Hundred pounds for a Legacy Item I give and bequeath vnto William 
John Senhouse third son of my Nephew Humphrey Senhouse the sume of One 
Hundred pounds for a Legacy Item I give and bequeath vnto my God Daughter 
Bridget Blencow Daughter of Henry Blencow Esq the sume of fflve poundsfor 
a Legacy Item I give and bequeath vnto my God Daughter Bridget Pennington 
Daughter of my Neice Biidget Pennington of Kendall the sume of ffive pounds 
for a legacy Item I give and bequeath vnto my God Daughter Bridget Parke 
Daughter of my Neice Dorothy Warburton of Whitbeck the sume of ffive pounds 
for a Legacy Item I give and bequeath vnto Eleanor Elletson my Servant (pro- 
vided she continue in my service untill the time of my Death) the sume of ffive 
pounds for a Legacy Item I give and bequeath vnto all other my Household 
Servants that happens also to be my Servants at the time of my Death the sume 
of Tenn Shillings each for a Legacy Item I give and bequeath vnto the poor 
people of the Lordshipp of Millom to be distributed amongst tbem at the dis- 
cretion of my Executor here after named the sume of Tenn pounds Item my 
further will and mind is that none of the Legacys herein before bequeathed shall 
be paid unto any Legatee vntill ffourteen months be expired next after my de- 
cease All the rest and residue of my personall Estate Goods and Chattells of what 
kind Nature or quality soever I give and bequeath vnto my Trusty and well beloved 
Nephew Humphrey Senhouse And I do hereby Nominate and Appointe the said 
Humphrey Senhouse full and Sole Executr of this my Last will and Testaint In 
VVitnesse whereof I the said Bridget Hudleston of Millom Castle aforesaid to this 
my Last Will and Testament of my Personal Estate Have hereunto Sett my hand 



and Sealc this Twenty Third day of December in the Year of our Lord God One 
Thousand Seven Hundred and ffourteen. 

Bridget Huddlf.ston. 
Signd Seald published and 
Declared by the Testatrix in 
our presence and also attested 
by vs in the Testatrix presence 
at the time of Execucon hereof 

Daniel Steele jur. 

John Cragge. 

William Stable. 

ffrancis Irwin jur. 

[There is a splendid seal on this will] 

Will of Andrew Huddleston 1705. 

In the name of God Amen ye 26th day of Janry in ye year of our Lord God 1705 
I And. Huddleston of Hutton John in ye County of Cumberland Esqr being pfect 
in health & of sound remembrance 1 thank God Almighty for ye same neverthe- 
less concerning ye uncertainty of this transitory life & minding as well ye 
of my conscience as alsoe ye disposall of my personal as reall estate so yt I may 
be in greater reddiness when t shall please God to call me to his mercy doe make 
& ordaine this my last Will & testiment in manner and forme following & 1st & 
principly I give and bequeath mine immortal soul into ye mercye of Almighty 
God my maker hopeing yt thorrow ye meritorious death and passion of Jesus 
Chrisht mine only Saviour and redeemer to rec. pardon for all my Sins & as for 
my body I give it to be buried in ye parish church where 1 shall happen to dye 
without any funerall pomp or state: Item I give and bequeath to my Daughter 
Kath : ye sume of 150I to my Daughter ffran. iool to my daughter Ann iool to 
my daughter Budget iool to my Sonn Richd 50I to my Sonn Andr one guiney 
to my Sonn Wilfrid 20/- to my Sonn Wra il to my Sonn Lawson iltomy 
Daughter Gibson il to my Daughter Davis il to my bro. Ri. 10s. to my sister 
Hudleston one guiney (to my Sister Sisson 1 guiney) to my Sistr Crackenthrop 
10s. to Sibt. Latus 10s. all wch severall lesjacyes & part portions are to be raised 
out of my psonall Estate & ye lands & houses by me bought in Newbicken 
Graystock & Penrudddock all wch portions & legacyes are to be paid within 14 
month after my decease wch said severall lands & houses I bequeath to my wife 
to be by her sold & desposed on for ye purpose & my will is yt ye yearly paymt 
of 10s. be secured to be payd to such five poor inhabitants within Hutton Soyle 
as ye Lord & owner of ye ye sd Lordship of Hutton John for ye time being shall 
yearly direct forth of Tenement lately belonging to John Dawson situate in 

Penruddock & by me lately purchased Item I give and bequeath unto my said 
Wife Kalh. all yt my mannr or Lordship of Hutton John als. Hutton Soyle in ye 
sd County of Cumberland & parish of Graystock wth ye appurtenances and all 
& every ye messuages lands Tenements closes ffields meadows pastures waists 
moores mosses woods & undei woods milln & watercoarses suite & Sucken com- 
mon of pasture & herbary rents fines reversions dutyes services profitts commo- 
dityes emolumts & Hereditamts whatsoever situate & being in Hutton John als. 



Mutton Soyle Penruddock Whitbarrow Hutton Stoddon Todrigge Goate Gill 
Motherby and Graystock all lyeing and being wthin ye parish of Graystock & 
County of Cumberland & alsoe all that third part & share of ye ffishing of Powley 
in ye County of VVestmerland for and dureing her naturall life or untill she shal' 
marry Item after the determination of my said Wife Kath s estate by death or 
otherwise I give and bequeath ye said manner with all every ye premises limited 
to my said Wife unto my Sonn Wilfrid Hudleston for & dureing his naturall life 
provided yt he ye said Wilfrid pay or cause to be payd within 13 months after 
ye death of Kath my sd wife or other determination of her estate as aforesaid ye 
Severall sumes hereafter named viz. to my daughter Kath 150I to my daughter 
ffran iool to my daughter Ann 100I to my daughter Bridgett iool & to my Sonn 
Ri iool Item after the determination of ye respective estates before limited I give 
and bequeath ye said mannr wth all and every of ye premises herein before men- 
tioned to be limited as aforesaid to Andr Hudleston Sonn of ye sd Wilfrid for & 
dureing his naturall life and after his decease to ye first second and every other 
Sonn lawfully begotten by ye said And 1 " according to ye Seneority of Age & to his 
and their heirs respectively as they shall become owner of ye said manner 
premises & for want of such issue to ye heirs of mine Owne body provided always 
& it is mine intent & meaning yt Andr Hudleston my Sonn shall dureing his 
naturall life have and enjoy yt pcell of ground called ye Deer Close being part of 
ye sd mannr and alsoe yt iol yearly be payd to him by ye severall persons 
successively to whome ye said manr & premisses are hereinbefore limited for & 
dureing his naturall life provided yt he ye said Andr my Sonn forbear to oppose 
or give any disturbance to ye Execution of this my Will but if it shall otherwise 
happen and yt je sd Andrew my son doe sett himselfe to oppose and give 
disturbance to the execution of this my Will that then such part of this my 
Will as doth in any way relate to him my sd Sonn Andr shall be voyd ex- 
cepting what relates to ye Guiney herein before by me given Item my Will is 
yt if any of my Legatees herein named shall happen to dye or be by me in my life 
time provided for before their respective Legacies become due yt then such 
Legacy or Legacys herein directed to be given to such persons shall cease & 
remaine unpayd Lastly I doe give and bequeath all my goods & chattels & per- 
sonall estate (my debts & funerall expenses being first deducted) to my faithfull 
and Loveing wife Kath. whom I make Executrix of this my last Will And I doe 
hereby revoake all former Wills & Settlements whatsoever by me heretofore made 
& Executed. 

Andr Hudleston 

Signed & Sealed in ye psence 
of us 

Layton Mounsey. 

Jno. Rukin. 

Tho. Robinson. 

Jno. Hodgson, jurat. 

Jos. Greenhow, jurat. 
Apud Peareth 2yd die Mensis Octobris Anno Dm 1706 Probat fuit &c. et Adco 
bonor com fuit Katherine Huddleston vid Extric, &c, &c. 



IV ill of Kathrain Hiidlestou, 1709. 

September the i<j in the year of our Lord God seventeen Hundred & nine 1 Kath- 
rain Hudleston of Hutton John in the County of Cumberland widdo doe make <.V 
ordain this my Last Will and testiment in manner and form following & first & 
principally I give and bequeath mine imortall soull into the Mercy of Allmighty 
God my maker and hoping yt through the meritorious Death & Passion of Jesus 
Christ my onely Saviour and Redeemer to receive pardon for all my Smns & as 
for my Body I give it to be buryed in Graistock church as near my Dear Husband 
as conveniently may be the manner of my buriall I leave to my Executers as they 
shall think fitt 1 give to the poor 5 pounds to be given to them as my Executers 
shall think fitt I give to my Son Andrew Hudleston all ye Furnetur in the par- 
lor & parler chamber I give to my Daughter Davis my Lockett I give to Mr. 
John Patteson 2 ginnes Disiring him to be Helpfull & assisting to my Executers 
Lastly I give and bequeath all my goods Chatties & parsonall estait my Debts & 
funerall expenses being first Deducted to my Daughter Kathrain Hudleston 
Daughter francis Hudleston & Daughter Anne Hudleston whom I make Executers 
of this my Will I alsoe give to my three Fxecuters & to ther Heirs all my houses 
and Lands in Penrudick & Grastock to be sold & disposed on by them as they 
shall think fitt & ye money a Rissing by such saill to be equally divided amongst 
them in witness whereof I have hereunto sett my hand & seall ye Day & year 
above written. 

K AT H A K I N E H U D L ES l'O X . 

Signed & sealed in ye presence of us 
John Hodgson jurat. 
Thomas Todhunter J mark. 
John Jack. 
Francis Browne jurat. 
Seal in black wax an animal rampant scarcely perhaps a lion the head being 
so small. 

Apud Penreth 20 die Mensis Februarii Anno Dom 1709 Probatum fuit &c, &c. 

Will of Frances Hudleston, 1716. 
October the 15th in the year of our Lord God seventeen hundred and sixteen I 
firancies Hudleston of Penrith in ye County of Cumberland Spinster doe make 
this my last Will and Testement in manner and form following and first & princi- 
pally 1 give and bequeath mine immortal Soule unto the mercy of allmighty God 
my Maker and Redeemer as for my body I give it to be buried in the parish 
church where I dye the manner of my buriall I leave to my Executor as she shall 
think fitt I give to the poor in the parish where I die two pounds I give to my Bro 
Andrew Hudleston one guiney and my part of ye hundred pound bond which he 
is oweing to me and my two Sisters I give to my brother Wilfrid Hudleston out 
of the money he is to pay me by my father's Will tenn poundes to my Bro Richard 
twenty poundes to my Brother Lawson two guineys to my sister Warbuiton two 
guineys to my Sister Davise Tenn poundes to my Sister Ann thirty poundes to my 
sister Bridget two Guineys to my sister Joyce one Guiney to my sister Mary one 



guiney all the Legases liere above mentioned that is above two guineys a pease 
half is to be payd 12 months after my death by my Exeeutor and the other half 
when my Brother Wilfrid payes my Executor the money which was left me by 
my fath Will Lastly I give and bequeath all my houses lands and personall Estate 
to my sister Katherine whome 1 make Executor of this my last Will In Witnesse 
whereof I have hereunto sett my hand and seale the day and year above written. 

Sign and sealed in the 

presence of us Frances Hudleston'. 

Jno Hunt jurat. 
Geo. Hutchinson. 
John Carmalt jurat. 
Seal in red wax. A fleur de lis. 
Apud Penreth 2S die Mensis Octobris A.D. 171S Probat fuit &c. 

An Inventory of all the goods & chattels of Mrs. Frances Hudleston late of Pen- 
reth in the County of Cumberland Spinster deceased Appraised this fourth day 
of September, A.D. 171S. 

Goods in her owne Room as followeth viz. 

I. s. d. 

Her purse and Apparell 

A gold Ring and Plate 

A Chest of Drawers and China & Glasses upon it 

Bedd and ffurniter .... 

Linning ...... 

Linning Yarns and Flax 

A Table Chairs & other odd Goods 

Goods in the Little Roome 

Goods in the Brew House 

Goods in the Hands of Mrs. Jane Sledman Vid 

Debts oweing to the deceased viz. 

By Mr. Wilfrid HudJIeston 

By a Mortgage from John Wilson 

By Bonds Bills and Notes 









































1 1 


Will of Agnes Latus, 1725. 

In the name of God the sixth day of April in the year of our Lord one Thousand 
seven hundred and twenty five I Agnes Latus of Penreth in the County of Cum- 
berland Widow being in perfect Health and of sound Mind and Memory I thank- 
God Almighty for the same Nevertheless considering the uncertainty of this Life 
and the Certainty of Death and being desirous to settle and dispose as well my 
Personall as real Estate doe make and ordain this my last Will and Testament in 
Manner and Form following and First and principally I give and bequeath my im- 
mortal Soul unto the mercy of Almighty God and Maker hoping through the 
merits of Jesus Christ my only Saviour and Redeemer to receive remission of my 




sins and Eternal Salvation And as for my Body I give it;o be buried in the parish 
church or churchyard of Penreth aforesaid at the discretion of my Executrix here 
after named Item I give to Wilfrid Hudleston Esq one Guinea and to his son 
Andrew one Guinea to Christopher Blencow Efq. three Pounds to Mrs. Dorothy 
Blencow three Pounds to Mrs- Bridget Blencow three Pounds to Mrs. Mary Blen- 
cow three Pounds to my cousin Andrew Richmond of London two Guineas to my 
Godson Humphrey Senhouse two Guineas to my God-daughter Katherine Hudd- 
leston Daughter of Richard Huddleston the sum often Pounds to my God- 
daughter Katherine Latus Daughter of my late Son in law John Eatus the sum of 
ten Pounds to Henrietta Latus and Elizabeth Latus daughters of my Son in law 
Ferdenando Latus Esq. each of them Five Pounds to my Niece Jane Davis YViddow 
two Guineas to my Niece Katherine Nicholson two Guineas to my God-daughter 
& Niece Anne Huddlestcne three Pounds to my Niece Bridget Askew five Pounds 
to Jane Adderton of Lowther Widow five Pounds to Mary Wilkinson Wife to Mr. 
Wm Wilkinson of Lowther two Guineas to Bridget Pennington five E 3 ounds to 
Mrs. Dorothy Senhouse a Guinea and a Gold Ring to Jane Yeazy five Pounds to 
Dorothy Bell of new Castle five Pounds to my Servant Maid Anne Goodburn four 
Pounds Item I give three Pounds to be distributed by my Executrix hereafter 
named among the poor of he Parish of Penreth at her Discretion Item I give to 
my Cousin Richard Huddleston of Penreth Gent one Guinea And my Will and 
Mind is that all the said Legacies shall respectively be paid wthin fifteen months 
next after my Decease Item I do give devise and bequeath All that my Messuage' 
and Tenement Houses and Out Houses Barnes Byers Stables Orchards Gardens 
and the Close and inclosed Parcel of Ground situate and laying on the Backside 
thereof wth their and every of their Appurtenances situate standing and being at 
Townhead in Penreth aforesaid unto my Dear and Loving sister Mrs. Jane Morland 
alias Crackanthorp Widow Her Heirs and Assigns for ever And I doe nominate 
constitute make and appoint my said Sister Jane Morland alias Crackenthorpe 
Sole Executrix of this my last Will and Testament And to Her my said Executrix 
I give and bequeath all my Moneys Bonds Bills Notes Mortgages Goods Chattells 
and all my personal Estate whatsoever or wheresoever the same are or be or of 
what kind soever And I do hereby revuke and frustrate and make void all Wills 
and Testaments by me at any Time or Times heretofore made Published or de- 
clared in any Wise In Witness whereof I have to this my last Will and Testa- 
ment sett my Hand and Seal the Day and year first above written. 
Signed Sealed Published and declared 
by the above named Agnes Latus the 
Testatrix to be her last Will and Testament 
in the presence of us who at her Request 

and in her Sight and Presence did Agnes Latus her mark 

subscribe our names as Witnesses and Seal X 

To the Same. 

John Rumney jurat 

Saml Shepherd 

John Kendale his mark X jurat. 

Apud Penreth 20 die Mensis Aprilis Anno Dm. 1725 Probat fuit &c. 

Bond given by Janam Morland als Crackenthorpe de Penreth townhead Richa. 
Hudleston de Penreth Gent & Willm Wilkinson Ludi magr de Lowther & signed 
by Jane Morland with a Mark, the other two in very good hands. Seals not de- 



A true & perfect Invry of all the Goods & Chattels Rights & Credits of Agnes 
Latus late of Penreth in the County of Cumberland Widow Deceased made 
Approwsed and Apprazed the twelfth day of April Anno Dni 1725 By Mr. RichJ 
Hudleston & William Simondson. 

1 s d 

App s 

Imps Purse and Apparel 






Goods in the Kitchin 



Goods in the Brewhouse 


Goods in the Barn 


A Cow and Hay 


Goods in the Buttery 


Goods in the Hall . 



Goods in the best Room 


Goods in the Chamber over the Kitchin 


Goods in the Middle room . 


Linnen .... 


Bees .... 


Bonds and other Securityes 





Richd Hudleston jurat 
Will Simondson jurat 

Will of Wilfrid Hudleston 1728-9. 

In the name of God. Amen. 

I Wilfrid Hudleston of Hutton John in the County of Cumberland Esqr being 
sick and weak of body but of perfect and disposing mind (praised be God for 
the same) do make this my last Will and Testament in maner following 

First I give and bequeath my Soul into the hand of Almighty God and my body 
to the ground to be buried in decent and Christian maner by my Executor here- 
after named hoping for a free pardon of all my sins thro' the merits of my Savr 
Jesus Christ and a joyful reunion of my Soul and body at the General Resurrec- 

And as for those worldly goods which God (far above my deserts) has blest me 
with I give and bequeath thus. 

Imprimis. I give and bequeath unto Joyce Hudleston my Dear and well be- 
loved Wife the best Bed and all things thereunto belonging four chairs and the 
best looking Glass to have and hold during her natural life. 

Item. 1 give and bequeath unto my Daughter Isabel Hudleston One Hundred 
pounds of lawful British money to be paid to Her by my Executor hereafter men- 
tioned out of my personal estate at the end of Twelve months after my decease 
as also I give unto my said Daughter all the furniture of her Chamber and par- 
ticularly two beds and bedding to them a chest of Drawers a Table a Glass Her 
Mothers picture and Six Chairs in full of her child's portion. 




Item. I give and bequeath unto my Son Curwen Hudleston One Guinea out 
of personal Estate to be paid to him by my Executor hereafter named at the end 
of twelve months after my decease in full of his child's Portion. 

Item. I give and bequeath unto Joshua Borrow Rector of Asby in Westmor- 
land and to Catherine his wife each One Guinea out of my personal Estate to be 
paid by my Executor in Twelve months time after my decease. 

Lastly. All the residue and lemainder of my Goods moveable and immoveable 
(after my just debts Legacies and Funeral Expences discharged and defrayed) 
I give unto my son Andrew Hudleston to whom I do make constitute and appoint 
Sole Executor of this my last Will and Testament revoking nulling and making 
void all former Wills Bequests and Legacies by me at any time heretofore made 
and ratifying confirming and declaring this to be my last Will. 

In witness whereof I have here unto set my hand and seal this nineteenth day 
February one thousand seven hundred and twenty eight or nine. 
(Signed) Wilk. Hudleston, 

(seal) A Cypher. 
Signed sealed published 
and declared to be the Last 
Will and Testament of Wilfrid 
Hudleston of Hutton John 
in the County of Cumberland 
Esqr in the presence of us 
Edw. Longworth 
Thomas Todhunter 

Copy from the original at Hutton John. 
A true full and pfect Inventory of all the Goods and Chattels that Wilfrid 
Hudleston late of Hutton John in the County of Cumberland Esqr dyed posses- 
sed of together with the value of them as they were appraised on the 5th day of 
March ij2^ by the persons whose names are hereunto subscribed. 

£ s. d. 

Imprs Horse Purse apparl and riding gear 

Item Plate 

Item Goods in the Parlour Closet 

Item Goods in the Parlour 

Item Goods in the Chamber adjoining 

Item Goods in the room over the Parlour 
Item Goods in the White Chamber 
Item Goods in the Blew Chamber 
Item Goods in the Servants room 
Item Goods in the Hall and Wool in the 

near it 
' Item Goods in the Dining Room. 

Item Goods in the Chambroverthe Dining Room 
Item Goods in the Gallery and Gallery closet 
Item Goods in the Red Room 
Item Goods in the Kitchins 
Item Goods in the Cellar. 
Item Goods in the Buttery 


to the 












05 00 

00 00 

00 00 

00 00 

00 00 















Item Goods in the Garrets 

Item husbandry gear 

Item horses mares and foals 

Item fat cattel 

Item Cows and Oxen 

Item Swine 

Item Arke and Corne in it 

Item Hay . 

Item Sheas and Harness . 
Henry Winder 
Thomas Todhunter 




























Will and Codicils of Jane Davis 1739. 

In the name of God. Amen. 
I Jane Davis of Winder in the County of Westmerland Widow being in per- 
fect health and memory praised be God for it Do make this my last Will and 
Testament in maner and form following- First I comitt my Soul into ye hands of 
Almighty God my Creator hoping- through his mercies and Meritts of His Blessed 
Son Jesus Christ my Saviour and Redeemer to have Eternal Life after this Mortal 
Life ended And I desire that my body may be buried in the Parish Church of 
Barton as neara where my late dear husband laid buried as conveniently can be 
And under the same stone if it be thought fit if it please God I die within Ten 
miles of him If not I leave it to my Two dear Exors. hereinafter named to be 
buried with Christian burial where the}' shall think fit And as for my temporal 
Estate I do order give and dispose of the same in forme and manner following 
That is to say First my Will is that all my just Debts and Funeral Expences shall 
be well and truly contented and paid within twelve months after my Decease by 
my Extors. herein named And further by this my Will and Testament and by 
virtue of and in pursuant to the power given me by the Deed or Marriage Settle- 
ment of William Davis of Winder in the said County Gentleman my said dear 
Husband deceased bearing date on or about the Twenty Sixth day of February 
wh was in the year of Our Lord One Thousand Seven Hundred And by virtue of 
my sd Power and Authority there or thereby Given me or otherwise I do hereby 
dispose give and bequeath the sum of Five hundred pounds lawful money of 
Great Britain nominated in ye said Deed of Settlement to my loving Brother 
Richard Hudleston of Penrith and my dear Nephew Andrew Hudleston of Hutton 
John both in ye county of Cumberland Gentn who I make sole Exetrs of this my 
last Will and Testament. And the better to move them to perform this my Will 
and to discharge my Debts and Legacies herein given by me I do hereby declare 
charge and desire that Sir Wilfrid Lawson of Isell in the County of Cumberland 
Barrt George Sisson of Penrith of yc aforesaid County Gent. Andrew Hudleston 
of Hutton John Junr in yc said County Gent. Charles Smithson of Carlisle in ye 
said County Gent, or their Heirs or the Survivors of them to hold enjoy & pos- 
sess the said Manor Lordshipp Lands Tenements Premises with yr appurtt in ye 
said Deed Settlement menciond from and after my decease and receive and take 
ye Rents Issue and Profitts thereof or to suffer my aforesaid Exors Rich'l Hudle- 



ston of Penrith Gent, and Andrew Hudleston of Hutton John Gent, or their As- 
signs to take hold & enjoy ye same untill ye sum of Five Hundred Pounds be 
raised & paid pursuant to ye said Deed of Settlt & Trust reposed in them I do here- 
by give and dispose first of ye Five Hundred Pounds as followeth to my Brother 
William Hudleston Twenty Pounds to my Brother Lawson Hudleston Twenty 
Pounds To my Brother Richard Hudleston Twenty Pounds my Chariot and two 
Horses belonging' it and all Trapings & Wood belonging ye Chariot To my sister 
Anne Donkin ye sum of Twenty Pounds my Velvet Mantel & Velvet Hood short 
Scarlet Cloak Gold Laced Apron and Goold Laced Handkerchief All to be de- 
livered to Sister Donkin own Hand and her receipt shall be your full Discharge 
To my Xephew Andrew Hudleston of Hutton John the sum of Twenty Pounds 
& ye Six Pictures with Gilded Frames in my parlour Mary his Wife ye sum of 
Ten Pounds Andrew Hudleston junior Ten Pounds Joyce Hudleston Five Pounds 
Lawson Hudleston wife Ten Pounds Mary ye Wife of Richard Hudleston Ten 
Pounds Her son Richard Two Guineas her Daughter Mary Two Guineas To my 
Goddaughter Jane Hudleston Five Pounds Twelve Xapkins and a Table Cloath 
of My maid Bette's spining my Comon Prayer Book in Barton Church A Book 
called the Devout Christian Instruction and my little Black Dressing box with ye 
Looking Glass in it To my nepl.ew Curwen Hudleston I give the Sum of Ten 
Pounds To M. John Hudleston of Kirkby Thore Ten Pounds To my Brother 
Lawson's Three sons Twenty Pounds amongst them To my Goddaughter of Millom 
Castle Five Pounds To my Goddaughter Jane Steel Five Pounds To my Godson 
Blennerhasset Two guineas To my trusty and kind friend John Robinson of 
Powley Ten Pounds Tc his son John Robinson Ten Pounds To my Katherine 
Dobson Five pounds To my Xeece Dorothy Walker Five pounds if they give no 
trouble to my Two Extrs. if they do or any for them not one Farthing To my God- 
daughter Jane Walker ye sum of Five pounds To my Goddaughter and servant 
Jane Tyson ye sum of Twenty pounds and all my wearing Apparel 1 have given 
her a note under my Hand for and Boxes and Trunk Green Bed Stocks Bedding 
Bedd and Bolster and all things in it and ye Bookes named in ye said writing if 
she be with me at my Death To my Godson William Myres Two Pounds Two 
Shillings To my Godson Richard Grave Two Guineas To my Goddaughter Basey 
Two guineas To my neece & Goddaughter Jane Askew the summe of Fifty pounds 
My Will and Mind is that all ye aforesaid Legacies in Money shall be paid out of 
ye Five Hundred Pounds as fast as it can be raised and if any of ye Legatees shd 
dye before it can be raised then my Will is that their shares go to my aforesaid 
Extrs. Andrew Hudleston of Hutton John Gent, and Richard Hudleston of Pen- 
rith Gent, who I hope to ye utmost of their power will fulfill this my last Will 
The rest of my personal Fstate I dispose of as followeth First I give to ye Poor of 
Barton Parish ye Sum of six pounds to be devided ye first Good Friday after my De- 
cease by John Robinson of Powley if living if not by ye Parson of Barton And 
whoever my funeral sermon preaches I leave one Guinea To my Goddaughter and 
Xeece Jane Askew of Winder Hall I give je Sum of One Hundred Pounds in 
Mortgage Deeds and Bonds as they become due over and above ye Fifty pounds 
beforenamed All my wearing Apparell Silk Woollen and Linnen I have not al- 
ready disposed of My Rings my Best Dressing Boxes of my own makeing writeing 
Box and one Chest of Drawers she shall choose The wainscoatChest in ye Gallery 
Three pair of Bed Sheets and Three pair of Pillowes Three Table cloaths Two 
Dozen Xapkins 6 Towels I give her all my Puther Brass and Iron and all the 



Furniture belonging my Kitchen But my Will and Mind is that my Two Dear 
Extors. have yc use of all in ye Kitchen as long- as they have any Business in 
Winder Hall relating to them as Extors. And of all ye House Linnen I alsoe leave 
my neece Askew all Furniture belonging me now in Mr. Robert Jackson's House 
in Penrith or wherever it be removed to My Comon Prayer Book my Brother 
Lawson sent me My Great Bible 4 Books she shall choose in my Closet Receipt 
Booke 4 large Silver spoons and Silver Salver I give to my Godaughter Thurlow 
Two Pounds and ye Damask Table Cloath and ye fine Damask Napkins I had of 
her Mother I give to my old Servant William Whitelock ye sum of Six Pounds if 
with me at my death and y e fether Bedd Bolster Bedstocks Curtains & all bedding 
his Bed here All the rest of my Personal Estate whatsoever I die possessed of I give 
to my aforesaid Executors Andrew Hudleston of Hutton John Gent, and Richard 
Hudleston of Penrith Gent, who I desire will be assisting & advising with my 
said neece Jane Askew if she be dutyful and ask your advice Especially in her 
marriage I alsoe give to my sister Joyce Hudleston of Workington ye sum of Ten 
pounds To my Nephew & Neece Gibson of Workington each Five pounds To my 
Nephew Anthony Askew I leave ye sum of Five pounds Revoking all other Wills 
made by me whatsoever As Witness my Hand & Seal ye 15 Day of October 1736 
Jane Davis Signed Sealed Published & Declared to be the last Will in ye presence 
of us Robert Jackson George Wilson sworn William Castlehow sworn. 

Whereas I Jane Davis of Winder Hall in the County of Westmdand Widow 
having already made and published my last Will & Testament in writeing here- 
unto annexed bearing date on or about ye fifteenth day of October 1736 I hereby 
by this present Codicil to be annexed to ye said Will & to be deemed & taken as 
part thereof satisfy & confirme ye said last Will & Testament in all and every part 
thereof save & except what is hereinafter particularly expressed & declared to ye 
contrary thereof in maner and forme following First I give to my dear Brother 
Richard his Extors. Admrs and Assigns for ever the two Bonds executed to me the 
one from Hugh Stephenson John Stephenson the younger and John Stephenson all 
in ye Parish of Mellerby and County of Cumbld Yeomen bearing date ye 17 Novr 
1730 in ye penalty of Twenty Pounds for ye paymt of Tenn Pounds with Int. for 
ye same and alsoe ye other Bond Executed by John Hill ye Elder John Lawson 
and Thos. Kirkbride all of Colby in the Parish of Appleby and County of 
Westmld yeomn bearing date ye 17th October 1733 in ye penalty of Forty Pounds 
ye payt of Twenty Pounds with all interest and costs on both ye said Bonds and 
for ye Judgement at Law entered of Record at Westminster upon yt same I alsoe 
devise to my said Brother Richard Hudleston and to his Heirs and Assigns forever 
all my Estate Right Title and Interest of and in all that my Shop with ye loft over 
ye same with all and singular yr appurts thereunto belonging scituate at the North 
West end of the Moot Hall in Penrith and County of Cumberland holden under 
the Duke of Portland Lord of the Manor of Penrith by the yearly payment of One 
shilling and Eightpence Free Rent He the said Richard Hudleston paying thereout 
within Twelve months next after my decease the several and respective sums 
following that is to say to my Godson William Hudleston the son of Andrew 
Hudleston of Hutton John Esq. ye sum of Ten Pounds and to Mary and Julia 
Margaretta Hudleston his two Daughters each of them Two Guineas To my neece 
Jane Askew Ten pounds To my Brother Donken Five pounds To Jane ye Widow 
of Ralph Vaizie Two guineas To Isabella and Joyce daughters ot my Dear Nephew 
Mr.iCurwen Hudleston each Two guineas To Joyce Robert and Isabella Gibson 
the children of my Nephew Mr. Edward Gibson each of them Two Guineas And 




Whereas by my last Will and Testament I have besides a Legacy of Twenty 
Pounds left to my Sister Donken several Things of my Wearing Apparell therein 
particularly mencioned Now my Will and Mind is and I hereby leave to my said 
sister Donkin for and in lieu of my said wearing apparell the severall Things here- 
inafter mencioned That is to say My purple Tabby Gown My New London Head 
Ruffles Handkerchief belonging them Loan Sleeves Gold and White Ribbon and 
Gold Girdel New Russel Shoos and Clogs belonging them Cambrick Apron Hol- 
land Apron and Holland Shift to be severally given into her own Hands if she be 
living at the time of my Death but if not then I give all and singular the Things 
aforesaid to my dear neece Mary the Wife of ye said Andrew Hudleston And I 
give to ye said Mary Hudleston my neece my new Purple Gold Laced Short 
Cloak and my new Short Velvet Hood And my further Will and Mind is and I 
hereby give and bequeath to my said Nephew Andrew Hudleston my Best Bed 
Bedding & Bed Cloathsinye Parlour and my Six best Cain Chairs with Black 
Gilt Frames In witness whereof I have hereunto set my Hand & Seal This Twelfth 
day of December 1739 Jane Davis Signed Sealed Published & Declared by ye said 
Jane Davis as the further part of her last Will & Testament in our presence who 
have severally set & subscribed our names as Witnesses thereto in the presence 
of ye said Testatrix Stephen Lanon Sworn Chris Mobson Mark John Mounsey 

A second and further Codicil to be annexed unto and deemed and taken as 
part of the last Will and Testament of Jane Davis of Winder Hall in the County 
of Westmerland Widow This First day of February 1 739 Whereas by my last Will 
& Testament hereunto annexed I have given and bequeathed unto my neece Jane 
Askew several Legacies therein & in the other Codicil thereunto annexed particu- 
larly mentioned And whereas since the making and publishing of my said last Will 
and ye Codicil She the said Jane Askew has been very undutyful in her Behaviour 
to me And hath intermarried with one John Bewsher I do hereby revoke all and 
singular the said Legacies Gifts and Devises & Everything Thereby intended for 
her use & benefit And in lieu & instead thereof do hereby order & appoint and my 
Will and Mind is that my Exectrs Andrew Hudleston & Richard Hudleston their 
Exectrs Admts or Assigns shall out of the Five Hundred Pounds charged and 
chargeable out of ye Estate of Winder Hall aforesaid as in my said Will men- 
tioned when and so soon after my Death as the said Five Hundred Pounds shall 
be had and received by them lay out at Interest the full and just sum of One 
Hundred Pounds by Way of Mortgage of Lands in ye Counties of Cumbei land & 
Westmerland or upon the best other security that can or conveniently may 
be had or gotten And the Interest or produce thereof pay or cause to be paid 
to ye said Jane Bewsher to her sole and separate use & benefit during ye life of 
ye said John Bewsher her Husband and that her Receipt shall be their proper and 
sufficient Discharge And that in case she the said Jane Bewsher shall hapen to 
survive her said Husband that then the said One Hundred Pounds shall be paid 
to the said Jane Bewsher her Exectrs Admts or Assigns Provided always that if 
the said Jane Bewsher shall dye in the lifetime of her said Husband leaving any 
Child or Children yt yn & in such case ye Interest and Produce of the said One 
Hundred Pounds during and until such Time as such Child or ye youngest of such 
Children shall attain ye age of Twenty One years shall be paid to such Child or 
Children to their own use share and share alike & from & after such Child or 
Children shall attain the age of Twenty one as aforesaid that then the said sum 



of One Hundred Pounds shall be paid (to the said child or children ?) of ye said 
Jane Bewsher share & share alike Provided always and my Will and mind is that 
the said Andrew Hudleston & Richard Hudleston after the said One Hundred 
Pounds shall be so disposed of or laid out at Interest as aforesaid shall not be 
charged or chargeable with the said One Hundred Pounds & Interest or any part 
thereof save & except what shall from Time to Time be actually received by them 
respectively And lastly I hereby ratify and confirm my said last Will & Testa- 
ment & the other Codicil thereunto annexed & all and every part thereof save & 
except what is herein and hereby particularly Expressed & declared to the con- 
trary Revokeing all other Wills by me heretofore made In Witness whereof I have 
hereunto set my Hand &Sealethis First day of February 1739 Jane Davis Signed 
sealed published and declared by the said Jane Davis as the farther part of her 
last Will & Testament in our presence who have set our names as Witnesses 
thereto at the request & in the presence of the said Testatrix John Wallace 
sworn Jonathan Richardson John Mounsey sworn. 

Will of William Hudleston, 1740. 

In the Name of God Amen. I William Hudleston late of Jamaica but now of 
London Gent, being at this time thank God of sound understanding and memory 
do make this my last Will and Testament. Imprimis I will and bequeath to my 
servant maid Jane Wilkins for her great and tender care of me in my sickness 
the sum of Six Hundred Pounds as likewise all moveables that shall be found at 
my Lodgings whether Plate wearing apparell or ffurniture or any Household 
Goods whatsoever that shall then be there at my decease and to be for her use 
for ever excepting my Gould Watch and a Two quart Silver Tankerd. Item I 
give to Lawrence Parke my Nephew and of London Vintner the sum of One 
Hundred & ffifty Pounds And whereas he the said Lawrence Parke hath given me 
a Bond for ffifty Pounds I do Will that that Bond be of no effect or force against 
him and that he is to have the above said Sum of One Hundred and ffifty Pounds 
besides. Item I give and bequeath to my Brother Richard Hudleston of Penrith 
in Cumberland the sum of Eight Hundred Pounds and I also give to my said 
Brother Richard my Gould Watch and Silver Tankard above-named. Item I 
give to my Godson William Hudleston Son of Andrew Hudleston of Hutton John 
in the County of Cumberland Esq. the Sum of Three Hundred Pounds. Item I 
give to my two Nieces Katherine Stevens and Bridget Parke each the sum of 
One Hundred Pounds. Item I give to my Nephew Andr Hudleston of Hutton 
John Esq r the Sum of One Hundred Pounds and the like Sum to Curwen Hud- 
leston his Brother Minister of the Gospell. Item I give to my Sister Mrs Ann 
Duncan of Penrith the Sum of Two Hundred Pounds. I also give to my Love- 
ing Brother the Revnd Mr. Lawson Hudleston of Somersetshire the Sum of One 
Hundred Pounds and also One Hundred Pounds to my Sister Wife of my said 
Bror Lawson and to his two sons John and William each of them the Sum of 
ffifty Pounds It is my Will and desire that these Legacysbe paid in cours as they 
stand in my Will and as Moneys can be raised from my estate in Jamaica I give 
and bequeath all the rest and residue of my Estate whether personall or Real! 
scituate in England or Jamaica to my two Brothers Richard and Lawson Hud- 

4 6 4 


leston aforesaid to be equally divided between them share and share alike to them 
and their Heirs for ever and I do hereby appoint my friend Mr. John Serecolduf 
London MerclU and my loveing Brother Richard of Penrith to be Executors of 
this my last Will and Testament. Item I i;ive and bequeath to my said two 
Executors each of them the Sum of Twenty Pounds to buy them mourning. In 
witness whereof I have set my hand and sea! this 20th day of lanry 1740. 

Wm. Hudleston. 
Seal'd Signed and delivered in the 
presence of us who were Eye witnesses 
to the same and hee the said Mr. Hudleston saw us sign our names 

Wm. Heyrick 

Robt Adames 

Hen Rice 
This Will was proved at London the sixth day of ffebruary 1740 before the Wor- 
shipful Robert Chapman Doctor of Laws etc lawfully constituted by the Oath of 
John Serecold one of the Executors named in the said Will to whom Administra- 
tion was granted of all and Singular the Goods etc. of the deceased reserving 
power to make the like grant to Richard Hudleston the other Executor when he 
prayed the same. 

This Will was proved at London the Second day of March 1740 before Robert 
Chapman lawfully constituted by the Oath of Richard Hudleston the Brother of 
he deceased and Executor named in the said Will. 

Will of Richard Hudleston, 1753. 

In the name of God Amen I Richard Hudleston of Penrith in the County of Cum- 
berland Gent, being of sound mind praised be God for the same doe make and 
ordaine this my last Will in manner and form following and first and principally 
I give mine immortal Soul into the mercy of Almighty God hoping that through 
the meritorious death and passion of my only Savour and Redamour to receive 
pardon for all my sins And as for my worldly goods I give and bequeath them in 
manner following I give to my sone Richard Hudleston and to Heresand Assignes 
for ever All my reall and personal Estate yt I have in Jamaica which was given to 
me by the last Will of my Brother William Hudleston bering date ye sixth day of Feb- 
ruary 1740 w c h I proved att ye Doctors Comon he my said sone Richard Paying 
the Legaties yt are unpayed according to the direction of the said Will referrance 
thereto being had it will appear My Will is and I doe hereby order that my sone 
Richard pay unto my two Executrickes herein after mention'd One Hundred 
Pound which I lett my brother Lawson Hudleston have of my owne money in lew 
of his Legacie of One Hundred Pounds And my Will is and I doe hereby order 
yt my said SoneRichard Hudleston pay or cause to be payd unto Mrs. Jane Adder- 
ton of Penreth One Hundred and Tenn Pounds with Intrest due thereon for the 
payment of which I am bound to the said Mrs. Adderton And as to my Reall and 
Personall Estate that I have in Penrith or elsewhere I give and bequeath the 
same to my loveing Wife Mary Hudleston and my Doughter Jane Hudleston 
theire Heires and Assignes for ever to be disposed on as they or the Survivor of 
them shall think tit they paying all my just Debts and ffunerall Expences and I 



46 = 

will that my two Executrixes Give to my Coasen Jane Adderton Cosen Mary 
Wilkinson my Sone Richard Grave and Doughter Mary Grave each one Guinea 
to buy a Morning Ring And I doe hereby Make and Appoint my said loving Wife 
Mary Hudleston and Jane Hudleston Sole Executrixes of this my last Will and 
Testament revoking all other and former Wills In Witnesse whereof I have here 
unto sett my hand and seal this 20 Day of September 1753. 

Richd. Hudleston. 

Signed sealed published and 
declared to be the last Will and 
Testament of the above Richard 
Hudleston the Testator in the 
preascince of hus. 

Jonathan Stagg sworn 

Joseph Henderson 

John Stagg sworn. 

Proved by Comon June 19 1765. 
This Will was proved by Mary Hudleston the Widow, power being reserved to 
Jane Hudleston, Spinster, the other Executrix. 


3ln Mtmoviam. 

BY the death of the late William Jackson, F.S. A., J. P., 
of Fleatham House, St. Bees, the Cumberland and 
Westmorland Antiquarian and Archaeological Society 
has not only been deprived of one of its most esteemed 
Vice-Presidents, but has also lost the services of one of 
the most valued contributors to the pages of its Tran- 

William Jackson was born in the year 1S23, at 
Barkstone in Lincolnshire, where his family had been 
settled for many years. His mother was a Cumbrian, 
and his father, Mr. Samuel Jackson, settled in White- 
haven, and died there in 1829 : a monument to his 
memory covers his grave in the N.E. part of St. 
Nicholas churchyard, Whitehaven. The son received 
his early education at Archbishop Grindal's Grammar 
School of St. Bees, an institution in which he always 
retained a keen interest, and whose historian he after- 
wards became. His education was completed at Ber- 
nard Gilpin's Grammar School at Houghton-le-Spring. 
Though not a Cumbrian by birth, he dearly loved that 
county, its people, and its history : in addition to 
Whitehaven, at various times he resided at Aspatria, 
at Newton Reigny, and at St. Bees, and acquired a 
thorough knowledge of the district, which he traversed 
on foot in every direction, frequently in company with 
his old friend the Rev. T. Lees of Wreay. His wan- 
derings extended into the neighbouring county of West- 
morland and the district of Lancashire North of the 
Sands. Mr. Jackson was one of the founders of this 


Society, and for long was one of the most constant at- 
tendants at its meetings. To the pages of its journal 
he was a valued contributor, from its earliest days down 
to his death. The following is a lisc of his papers : — 
Extracts from the Parish Registers of St. Bees ; The 
Richmonds of Highhead Castle ; The Laws of Buck 
Cragg, Cartmel ; Agricola's Line of March from Chester 
to the Solway : The Camp at Muncaster ; Walls 
Castle, Ravenglas, (conjointly with Canon Knowles) ; 
On a Roman camp on Caermot, the probable Arbeia ; 
Whitehaven, its Streets, its principal Houses, and their 
Inhabitants; The Orfeurs of High Close; An Histori- 
cal and Descriptive Account of Cockermouth Castle ; 
Gerard Lowther's House in Penrith ; The Curwens 
of Workington Hall ; The Mesne Manor of Thornflat ; 
Egremont Castle (two papers, one conjointly with 
Canon Knowles) ; Excavations at Walls Castle in 1881 ; 
The Threlkelds of Threlkeld, Yanwath, and Crosby 
Ravensworth : the Dudleys of Yanwath ; Some Account 
of Sir John Lowther ; The Threlkelds of Melmerby, 
and the Hudlestons of Hutton John. A melancholy 
interest attaches to the last, as Mr. Jackson died 
while it was passing through the press. He edited for 
the Society's extra series " The Memoirs of Dr. Richard 
Gilpin and his posterity," with a folding pedigree sheet 
of enormous size. He was also the author of " White- 
haven and its old Church," and of " Archbishop Grindal 
and his Grammar School of St. Bees". Much good 
work by Mr. Jackson is buried in newspaper articles, of 
which no record exists. At the time of his death he was 
engaged upon a volume of local wills between 1650 and 
1750 : it is hoped this may yet see the light, but his 
promised pedigree papers on theLowthers,the Fletchers, 
and the Vauxs had not been commenced, though he 
had accumulated great store of material. 


Mr. Jackson was elected a fellow of the Society of 
Antiquaries in January, 1S78, and was joint local secre- 
tary for Cumberland for some years : he was elected a 
vice-president of this society in 1882, when he left 
Cumberland to reside on the Continent. He became 
a magistrate for the county of Cumberland in 1875, 
and, until he went abroad, was a regular attendant 
at both petty and quarter sessions. 

For many years Mr. Jackson was a diligent and 
successful collector of books, prints, autographs, etc., 
relating to Cumberland, Westmorland, and Lancashire- 
north-of-the-Sands. By his will he directed his execu- 
tors to give the valuable library thus formed to some 
institution in Cumberland, Westmorland, or Lancashire. 
On his death-bed he directed that it should be given to 
the free library about to be established at Carlisle, in 
Tullie House, which he visited in company with his 
friends the Rev. T. Lees and Chancellor Ferguson only 
some five weeks before. He died at the Euston Hotel, 
on Tuesday, 28th October, 1890, after a brief but hap- 
pily not painful illness. Long will the members of this 
Society regret that no more will their meetings be en- 
livened by his genial presence, and instructed by his 
archaeological lore : his colleagues will miss that fund of 
local information on which he was so willing to let them 
freely draw : they cannot but regret that his conscien- 
tious straining after accuracy, and his love of truth 
have hindered him from producing a work really com- 
mensurate with his knowledge and power, a book of 
Cumberland and Westmorland pedigrees such as lie 
alone could have done. No time was too long for him 
to spend in verifying a reference, and no reference ever 
went unverified, — a prodigious task in pedigree making 
on the scale on which beloved to work, tracing out the 
collateral branches to the most remote descendant. 


Mr. Jackson was thrice married. He is survived by 
his wife, a daughter and two sons. To her, the partner 
of his work, and his family, the Society desire their 
heartiest sympathy in their irreparable loss. Mr. 
Jackson's portrait is given with the present issue of 
Transactions and will form the frontispiece to this 





Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian and 
Archjsological Society. 

Bruce, Rev. J. Collingwood, LL.D., F.S. A., Nevvcastle-on- 

Greenwell, Rev. William, M.A., F.R.S., F.S.A., Durham. 
Stephens, Professor George, F.S. A., Copenhagen. 
Evans, J., Esq., D.C.L., LL.D., F.R.S., P.S.A., Nash Mills, 

Hemel Hempstead. 
Freeman, Edward A., Esq., D.C.L., LL.D., Somerleaze, 


i Addison, John, Castle Hill, Maryport 
Arnison, Major W. B., Beaumont, Penrith 
Bective, Earl of, Underley Hall, Kirkby Lonsdale 
Bain, Sir James, 3, Park Terrace, Glasgow 
5 Balme, E. B. W., Loughrigg, Ambleside 

Barrow-in-Furness, the Right Rev. the Lord Bishop of, 

The Abbey, Carlisle 
Braithwaite, Charles Lloyd, Ghyll Close, Kendal 
Braithwaite, Charles Lloyd, jun., Kendal 
Burn, Richard, Orton Hall, Tebay 
10 Browne, William, Tallentire Hall, Cockermouth 
Crosthwaite, J. F., F.S. A., The Bank, Keswick 
Cooper, Yen. Archdeacon, The Vicarage, Kendal 
Cropper, James, Ellergreen, Kendal 
Ferguson, The Worshipful Chancellor, F.S. A., (Lon. and 
Scot.) Lowther Street, Carlisle 
15 Ferguson, Robert, F.S. A., (Lou. and Scot.) Morton, 



Ferguson, Charles J., F.S.A., 50, English Street, Carlisle 

Gandy, J. G.. Heaves, Kendal 

Hornby, E. G. S., Dalton Hall, Burton 

Hudleston, W., Hutton John, Penrith 
20 Johnson, G. J., Castlesteads, Brampton 

Lees, Rev. Thomas, F.S.A., Wreay, Carlisle 

Pearson, F. Fenwick, Kirkby Lonsdale 

Sherwen, Rev. Canon, Dean, Cockermouth 

Taylor, M. W. F.S.A., (Lon. and Scot.) 200, Earl's 
Court Road, South Kensington 
25 Wakefield, William, Birklands, Kendal 

Wheatley, J. A., Portland Square, Carlisle 

Carlyle, Dr., The Cresent, Carlisle 
Mason, Thomas, Redmaine House, Kirkby Stephen 

FAnson, Dr., Whitehaven 
30 Carlisle, the Right Rev. the Lord Bishop of, Rose Castle 
Knowles, Rev. Canon, The Priory, Saint Bees 

Harvey, Rev. George T., F.S.A., Vicar's Close, Lincoln, 
Brunskill, Rev. J., Threlkeld, Keswick 


Allison, R. A., M.P., Scaleby Hall, Carlisle 
35 Bower, Rev. R., St. Cuthbert's Vicarage, Carlisle 

Cbapelhow, Rev. James, Kirkbainpton, Carlisle 

Crowder, W. 1. R., Stanwix, Carlisle 

Dalzell, Thomas H., Clifton Hall, Workington 

Dobinson, H., Stanwix, Carlisle 
40 Hoskins, Rev. Canon, Higham, Cockermouth 

Lowther, Hon. W., M.P., Lowther Lodge, Kensington 
Gore, London 

Maclaren, R., M.D., Portland Square, Carlisle 

Muncaster, Lord, M.P., Muncaster H3tt7 Ravenglass 

Z^JtU Nanson ' 


Nanson, William, Singapore 
4.5 Nicholson, J. Holme, Whitfield, Wilmslow, Cheshire 
Steele, James, Wetheral, Carlisle 
Steele, William, Chatsworth Square, Carlisle 
Thomlinson, John, Inglethwaite Hall, Carlisle 
Whitehead, Rev. Henry, Lanercost, Carlisle 

1875- _ 

50 Atkinson, Rev. G. W., Culgaith, Vicarage, Penrith 
Barnes, H., M.D., Portland Square, Carlisle 
Bellasis, Edward, Lancaster Herald, Coll. of Arms, 

Cooper, Rev. Canon, Grange-over-Sands 
Cartmell, Rev. J. W., Christ's College, Cambridge 

55 Cartmell, Studholme, 81, Castle Street, Carlisle 
Cartmell, Joseph, C.E., Maryport 

Clark, G. T., F.S.A., Taly Garn, Pontyclown, Glamor- 
ganshire, R.S.O. 
Fell, John, Dane Ghyll, Furness Abbey 
The Earl of Carlisle, 1, Palace Green, Kensington 

60 Loftie, Rev. A. G., Calder Bridge, Carnforth, 
Prescott, Ven. Archdeacon, The Abbey, Carlisle 
Robertson, George Hunter, Gateacre, Liverpool 
Strickland, Rev. W. E., St. Paul's Vicarage, Carlisle 
Senhouse, Humphrey, Netherhall, Maryport 

65 Watson, Rev. S. W., Bootle, Carnforth 
Webster, John, Baron)' House, St. Bees 


+ Bell, Rev. John, Matterdale, Penrith 
\J Dickson, Arthur Benson, Abbots^Reading, Ulverston^ 
Fisher, John, Bank Street, Carlisle 
70 Hetherington, J. Crosby, Burlington Place, Carlisle 
Maclnnes, Miles, M.P., Rickerby, Carlisle 
Simpson, Joseph, Romanway, Penrith 
Smith, Charles, F.G.S., c/o Dr. Gilbert, Harpenden, 

Vaughan, Cedric, C.E., Leyfield House, Millom 
75 Wilson, Frank, Castle Lodge, Kendal 



Wilson, John F., Southfield Villa, Middlesborough 

Beardsley, Amos, F.L.S., F.G.S., Grange-over-Sands 
Blanc, Hippolyte J., F.S.A., (Scot.), 78, George Street, 

Calverley, Rev. W. S., F.S.A., Aspatria, Carlisle 

80 Douglas, T. S., Allonby House, Workington 
Dowding, Rev. C, Aspatria Vicarage, Carlisle 
Fletcher, William, Brigham Hill, Cockermouth 
Greenwood, R. H., Bankfield, Kendal 
Helder, A., Whitehaven 

85 Massicks, Thomas Barlow, The Oaks, Millom 

Martin, Rear- Admiral Thomas M. Hutchinson, Bitterne 
Russell, Robert, F.G.S., Saint Bees 
Sewell, Colonel, Brandling Ghyll, Cockermouth 
Troutbeck, Rev. Dr., Deans Yard, Westminster 

go Varty, Major, Stagstones, Penrith 

Wood, Sir Albert, Garter King at Arms, College of 
Arms, London 

Ainsworth, J. S., Harecroft, Holmrook, Carnforth, 
Browne, George, Troutbeck, Windermere 
Bell, John, jun., Appleby 
95 Burnyeat, William, junr., Corkickle, Whitehaven 
Carey, Thomas, John Street, Maryport 
Clutton, William J., Cockermouth Castle, Cockermouth 
Curwen, H. F., Workington Hall, Workington 
Harrison, Rev. James, Barbon Vicarage, Kirkby Lons- 

100 Hargeaves, J. E., Beezon House, Kendal 
Hannah, Joseph, Castle View, Carlisle 
Heelis, William Hopes, Hawkshead, 
Harris, Jonathan James, Lindenside, Cockermouth 
Ransome, Rev. Canon, Kirkoswald 

105 Robinson, R. A., South Lodge, Cockermouth 
Tyson, E. T. Maryport 

Wilson, Robert, Broughton Grange, Cockermouth 
Waugh, E. L., The Burroughs, Cockermouth 




Argles, Thomas Atkinson, Eversley, Milnthorpe 

no Ainsworth, David, The Flosh, Cleator, Carnfortli 
Blair, Robert, F.S.A., South Shields 
Bracken, T. H., Hilham Hall, South Milford 
Calvert, Rev. Thomas, 15, Albany Villas, Hove, Brighton 
Deakin, Joseph, Ellerhow, Grange-over-Sands 

115 Grenside, Rev. W. Brent, Melling Vicarage, Lancaster 
Harry, J. H., High Law House, Abbey Town 
Hills, William Henry, The Knolls, Ambleside 
Jenkinson, Henry I., Keswick 
Martindale, Joseph Anthony, Staveley, Kendal 

120 Machell, Thomas, Joint Stock Bank, Whitehaven 
Nanson, John, Ambleside 
Pollitt, Charles, Thorny Hills, Kendal 
Peile, George, Shotley Bridge, Durham 
Steele, Major- General J. A. 9, Eastbourne Terrace, 
Hyde Park, London 

125 Tosh, E. G., Flan How, Ulverston 


Bone, Rev. John, West Newton, Apatria 

Burrow, Rev. J.J. Ireby, Carlisle 

Bardsley, Rev. C. W., St. Mary's, Ulverstone 

Carrick, Thomas, Keswick 
130 Hepworth, J., 18, Chatworth Square, Carlisle 

Hine, Wilfrid, Camp Hill, Maryport 

Hine, Alfred, Camp Hill, Maryport 

Maddison, Rev. A. R., F.S.A., Vicar's Court, Lincoln 

Mawson, John Sanderson, The Larches, Keswick 
135 Paisley, William, Workington 

Rushforth, George, Kirkland, Kendal, 

Atkinson, J. Otle\, Stramongate, Kendal 
Bulkeley, Rev. H. I., The Vicarage, Morpeth 
Beardsley, Richard Henry, Grange-over-Sands 
140 Calderwood, Dr., Egremont 

Dover, W. Kinsey, F.G.S., Keswick 




Goodchild, J. G., Art and Science Museum, Edinburgh 

Greenwood, Rev. J., Ulgate, Mealsgate, Carlisle 

Harrison, James, Newby Bridge House, Ulverston$ 
145 Howson, Thomas, Whitehaven 

Hayton, Joseph, Cockermouth 

Hetherington, J. Newby, F.R.G.S., 62, Harley Street, 

Iredale, Thomas, Workington 

Moor, Henry, Ullcoats, Egremont 
150 Richardson, J. M., Bank Street, Carlisle 

Seymour, J, S., Bank Street, Carlisle 

Smith, John, Egremont, 

Thompson, Rev. W., Guldrey Lodge, Sedbergh 

Valentine, Charles, Bankfield, Workington 
155 Wiper, Joseph, Stricklandgate, Kendal 

Wilkinson, Rev. W. H., Hensingham, Whitehaven 

Argles, Mrs., Eversley, Milnthorpe 

Arnison, Mrs., Beaumont, Penrith 

Braithwaite, Mrs., Hawes Mead, Kendal 
160 Braithwaite, Mrs. C. LI., junr., Kendal 

Weston, Mrs., Ashbank, Penrith 

Bland, Miss, 27, Ervington Terrace, Morecambe 

Colvill, Mrs., Handyside, Grange-over-Sands 

Ferguson, Mrs. C. J., Cardew Lodge, Carlisle 
165 Gillings, Mrs., St. Nicholas Vicarage, Whitehaven 

Fletcher, Mrs., Wollescote Hall, Stourbridge 

Gibson, Miss, M., Whelprigg, Kirkby Lonsdale 

Hill, Miss, Asby Lodge, Carlton Road, Putney Hill, 

Jackson, Mrs., Roe Lane, Southport 
170 Lees, Miss, Wreay Vicarage, Carlisle 

Gillbanks, Mrs., Lowther, Penrith 

Parker, Mrs. T. H., Belle Vue, Tilehurst Road, Reading 

Preston, Miss, Underclifte, Settle 

Taylor, Mrs., 202, Earls Court Road, South Kensington 



175 Wilson, Mrs. I. \V., Thorney Hills, Kendal 
Wilson, Miss, Corkickle, Whitehaven 

Fletcher, Mrs. William, Brigham, Cockennouth 
Miller. Miss Sarah, Undermount, Rydal, Ambleside 
Piatt, Miss, Burrow Cottage, Kirkby Lonsdale 
180 Sewell, Mrs., Brandling Ghyll, Cockermouth 

Brougham, Lady, Brougham Hall, Penrith 
Drysdale, Mrs. D. W r ., Silvermere, Prince's Park, Liver 

Nicholson, Miss, Carlton House, Clifton, Penrith 
Thomlinson, Mrs., Inglethwaite Hall, Carlisle 
185 Thomlinson, Miss, Inglethwaite Hall, Carlisle 
Boyd, Miss Julia, Gainford, Darlington 
Harvey, Miss, Wordsworth Street, Penrith 
Kuper, Miss, The Laurels, Thames Ditton 

Harrison, Mrs., Newby Brdge, Ulverstone 
190 Williams, Mrs., Holme Island, Grange-over-Sands 
Thompson, Miss, Croft House, Askam, Penrith 
Wilson, Mrs. T., Aynam Lodge, Kendal 

1882. ::: 

Barnett, Rev. B., Preston Patrick, Milnthorpe 

Constable, W., Holm Head, Carlisle 
195 Danson, J. T., F.S.A., Grasmere 

Harrison, John, 16, Hartington Terrace, Barrow 

Hothfield, The Right Hon. Lord, Appleby Castle 

Lazonby, J., Wigton 

Lonsdale, Rev. H., Thornthwaite, Keswick 
200 Newbold, Rev. W. T., The Grammar School, Saint 

Porter, W. H., Heads Nook, Carlisle 

* Ladies elected after this date, pay an annual Subscription of ioj6pcr annum, 
a separate list is not therefore kept. 


Parkin, John S., n, New Square, Lincoln's Inn, London 

Pale) r , E. G., Castle Park, Lancaster 

Robson, Arnold, The Esplanade, Sunderland 
205 Rea, Miss Alice, Holm Rook, Carnforth 

Richmond, Rev. Canon, The Abbey, Carlisle 

Rumney, Oswald George, Watermillock, Penrith 

Senhouse, Miss, Galeholme, Gosforth 

Smith, Charles William, Fisherbeck House, Ambleside 
210 Ware, Mrs., The Abbey, Carlisle 

Waterton, Rev. Canon St. Mary's Catholic Vicarage, 

Wilson, John Jowitt, Fayrestowe, Kendal 

Wood, Joseph Huddlestone, Hayborough House, Mary- 

Walker, Robert, Windermere 
215 Weston. J. W., Enyeat, Milnthorpe 

Collin, P. de E., Brooklands, Maryport 
Conder, Edward, jun., Terry Bank, Old Town, Kirkby 

Deakin, George, Blawith, Grange-over-Sands 
Dixon, T. Parker, 9, Gray's Inn Square, London 
220 Dykes, Mrs., The Red House, Keswick 
Harris, Alfred, Lunefield, Kirkby Lonsdale 
Hodgson, Isaac, Brampton 
Hodgson, T. Hesketh, Newby Grange, Carlisle 
Irving, W. J., Buckabank House, Dalston 
225 Lonsdale, Horace B., Moorhouse, Carlisle 

Micklethwaite, J. T., F.S.A., 15, Dean's Yard, West- 
Liverpool Free Public Library 

Peile, John, Litt. D., The Lodge, Christ's College, Cam- 
Rawnsley, Rev. H. D., Crosthwaite, Keswick 
230 Stamper, Mrs., Mountain View, Caldbeck, Carlisle 
White, Rev. J., Dacre Vicarage, Penrith 
Wilson, Rev. James, The Vicarage, Carlisle 
Whitwell, Robert Jowitt, 69, Highgate, Kendal 




Adair, Joseph, Egremont 
235 Bagot, Josceline, Levens Hall, Milnthorpe 

Baker, Rev. John, Nether Wastdale 

Coward, John, Fountain Street, Ulverston 

Dickinson, Joseph, jun., The Raise, Alston 

Douglas, Mrs., Lairthwaite, Keswick 
240 Ford, John Walker, Chase Park, Enfield 

Ford, John Rawlinson, Headingly, Leeds 

Henderson, The Very Rev. W. G., D.D., The Deanery, 

Hodgkin, Thomas, D.C.L., Benwell, Newcastle 

Horrocks, T., Eden Brow, Carlisle 
245 Irwin, T. A., Lynehow, Carlisle 

Leitch, Mrs., Derwent Bank, Keswick 

Lindow, Jonas, Ehen Hall, Cleator 

Lindow, Miss, Ehen Hall, Cleator 

Miller, W. P., Merlewood, Grange-over-Sands 
250 Pitt-Rivers, Major-Gen., F.R.S., F S A., Rushmore, 

Pughe, Rev. K. M., Irton, Carnforth 

Riley, Hamlet, Ennim, Penrith 

Robinson, Mrs., Green Lane, Carlisle 

Spence, C. J , South Preston Lodge, North Shields 
2 55 Watson, John, Parr Street, Kendal 

Whitehead, Sir James, Bart., Highfield House, Catford 
Bridge, London 

Wood, Miss, 35, Lismore Terrace, Stanwix, Carlisle 

Banks, Edwin H., Highmoor House, Wigton 
Barrow-in-Furness Free Library 
260 Creighton, Miss, Warwick Square, Carlisle 
Ecroyd, Edmund, Low House, Carlisle 
Elliott, G. B., Wordsworth Street, Penrith 
Gillbanks, Rev. W. F., Great Orton, Carlisle 
Gillings, Rev. C B., St. Nicholas, Whitehaven 

265 Hoare, Rev. J. N., F.R.Hist.S., St. John's Vicarage, 



Heelis, Rev. J., Kirkby Thore Rectory, Penrith 
Hodgson, James, Britain Place, Ulverston 
Hibbert, Percy, Plumtree Hall, Milnthorpe 
Jackson, Edwin, Hawthorns, Keswick 

270 Kendal Literary and Scientific Society 

Lowthian, Rev. W., The Villa, Soulby, Kirkby Stephen 
Machell, Rev. Canon, St. Martin's, York 
Norman, Rev. J. B., Whitchurch Rectory, Edgeware 
Pearson, A. G. B., Kirkby Lonsdale 

275 Penrith Free Library 

Roper, W. O., Edenbreck, Lancaster 

Robinson, John, Elterwater Hnll, Ambleside 

Wagner, Henry, F.S.A., 13, Halfmoon Street, Piccadilly 

Watson, George, Penrith 

2S0 Wilson, William, Keswick Hotel, Keswick 

Cole, Rev. G. W., Beetham Vicarage, Milnthorpe 
Cowper, H. Swainson, F.S.A., Yewfield Castle, Outgate, 

Crewdson, F. W., Greenside, Kendal 
Crewdson, W. D., Helme Lodge, Kendal 

285 Dixon, T., Rheda, Whitehaven 

Fletcher, W. L., Stoneleigh, Workington 

Foljambe, Cecil G. S., M.P., Cockglode, Ollerton, 

Hogg, J. Henry, Stricklandgate, Kendal 
Mathews, Rev. Canon, Appleby 

290 Parez, Rev. C. H., Stanwix, Carlisle 

Richmond, Rev. H. A., Sherburn Vicarage, Durham 
Robinson, John M. Inst. C.E., East Barry House, Cardiff 
Rymer. Thomas, Calder Abbey, Carnforth 
Swainson, Joseph, Stonecross, Kendal 

295 Wilson, Christopher M., Bampton, Shap 

Addison, Percy L., C.E., Cleator 
Atkinson, John, Croftlands, Ulverstone 



Ayre, Rev. L. R., Holy Trinity Vicarage, Ulverstone 

Bell, John, Haws Bank, Coniston 
300 Boston Public Library, Boston, Mass. U.S.A. 

Collingwood, W. G., M.A., Gill Head, Windermere 

Crewdson, Wilfrid Howard, Abbot Hall, Kendal 

Curwen, Miss Julia, Roewath, Dalston 

Curwen, John F., Horncop Hall, Kendal 
305 Ecroyd, William, Lomeshaye, Burnley 

Farish, Edward Garthwaite, Pall Mall Club, London 

Fielden, Rev. H. A., The Vicarage, Kirkby Stephen 

Fletcher, Miss, Stoneleigh, Workington 

Garnett, Fred. B., C.B., 4, Argyll Road, Camden Hill, 
310 Hodgson, Rev. W. G. C, Distington Rectory, White- 

Hoggarth, Arthur, Kirkland House, Kendal 

Holmes, W., 161, Chatsworth Terrace, Abbey Road, 

Kitchen, Hume, Ulverstone 

Lester, T., Firbank, Penrith 
315 Ma&h, Rev. W. J., Penrith 

Marshall, John, The Island, Keswick 

Mitchell, Rev. J., Coney House, Penrith 

Nelson, George H., Kent Terrace, Kendal 

Philadelphia Library Company, Philadelphia, U.S.A. 
320 Price, John Spencer, F.R.G.S., 41, Gloucester Place, 
Hyde Park, London 

Rawlinson, Joseph, Cavendish Street, Ulverston 

Stordy, T., English Street, Carlisle 

Walker, Edward, Linthorpe, Ulverston 

Whiteside, Rev. Joseph, Epsom College, Surrey 
325 Witham, Joseph Shaw, National School, Ulverston| 

Yeates, Joseph Simpson, 7, Devonshire Street, Penrith 

Breeks, Miss, Helbeck House, Brough, Kirkby Stephen 
Brougham, Right Hon. Lord, Brougham Hall, Penrith 



Bland, Henry Hewitson, Measand Beck Hall, Shap 

330 Billinge, Rev. R. B., Urswick Vicarage, Ulverston 
Braithwaite, John H., Airethwaite, Kendal 
Crewdson, Edward, Abbot Hall, Kendal 
Cowper, J. C, Keen Ground, Hawkshead 
French, John Mason, The Grove, Hopton Mirfield 

335 Gill, Edward, Town View, Kendal 

Gordon Smith, Henry, Bank Field, Ulverston 
Grant, George S., Devonshire Street, Carlisle 
Hudson, Rev. Joseph, Crosby House, Carlisle 
Hudson, Mrs., Crosby House, Carlisle 

340 Hoodless, W. H., West End, Wigton 

Hooppell, Rev. Robert E., M.A., LL.D., D.C.L., Byles 

Green Rectory, Spennymore 
Ireland, William, Sunny Brow, Kendal 
Ireland, Mrs., Sunny Brow, Kendal 
Jackson, Samuel Hart, Heaning Wood, Ulverston 

345 Jackson, Thomas, M.D., Hazel Bank, Yanwath, Penrith 
Keswick Library (per Rev. J. N. Hoare), Keswick 
Marshall, Walter J., Patterdale Hall, Penrith 
Mason, Mrs., Redmaine House, Kirkby Stephen 
Metcalfe-Gibson, Anthony, Park House, Ravenstonedale 

350 Pearson, R. O'Neil, Swarthdale, Ulverston 
Robinson, William, Greenbank, Sedbergh 
Ross, Captain A. J. J., Ulverston 
Rayner, John A. E., 28, Devonshire Road, Princess Park 

Snape, Rev. R. H., Eskdale Vicarage, Holm Rook, 

355 Stock, Rev. E. Ernest, Rydal Vicarage, Ambleside 
Thompson, Mrs., Hackthorpe, Penrith 
Tiffin, Dr. Charles J., The Limes, Wigton 
Westmorland, Col. J. P., Yanwath, Penrith 
Woodburn, Miles, Kirkland, Ulverston 

360 Knight, Mrs. Brundholme Terrace, Keswick 

Alcock Beck, Major, Esthwaite Lodge, Hawkshead 



Bailey, James Rostherne, Green Hill Road, Allerton, 

Bateman Rev. W. Jones, Penrith 

Birkbeck, Robert, F.S.A., 20, Berkeley Square, London 

Burgess, E. J., Portland Square, Carlisle 
365 Carrick, Mrs., Oak Bank, Scotby, Carlisle 

Cowper-Essex, Thomas C, Yewfield Castle, Hawkshead 

Donald, Rev. M. Sidney, Barton, Penrith 

Ellison, Miss R. E., Stanhope Road, Darlington 

Fletcher, John, Rock House, Ulverston 
370 Gatey, George, Grove House, Ambleside 

Hackworth, Rev. Thomas, B.A., Workington 

Higginson, H., Bank Street, Carlisle 

Hinds, James P., 20, Fisher Street, Carlisle 

Hinds, Miss, 20, Fisher Street, Carlisle 
375 Jenkinson, Mrs., Wordsworth Street, Penrith 

Jones, Frederic, 6, Brunswick Street, Carlisle 

Keed, E. H., M.A., Grammar School, Penrith 

Kennedy, Miles, Hill Foot, Ulverston 

Kemble, Rev. N. F. Y., Allerton Vicarage, Liverpool 
380 Lawson, Lady, Brayton Hall, Carlisle 

Le-Fleming, Stanley Hughes, Rydal Hall, Ambleside 

Lindow, Rev. S., Bowness-on-Solway 

Lowther, J. W., M.P., 16, Wilton Crescent, London, S. W. 

Mason, W. J., Bolton Place, Carlisle 
385 Medcalfe T. K., Oak Bank, Whitehaven 

Monkhouse, John, Hawthorn Villa, Kendal 

Moser, Herbert, Blindbeck, Kendal 

Neville, R. B., Penrith 

Noble, Miss, Beckfoot, Bampton, Penrith 
390 Ostle, Rev. J. Sharpe, Skelton Rectory, Penrith 

Parkin, C. J., The Laithes, Penrith 

Rawlinson, Frances, Bardsea, Ulverston 

Severn, Arthur, Brantwood, Coniston 

Severn, Mrs., Brantwood, Coniston 
395 Smith, W. J., Curzon Street, Maryport 

Smith, Rev. T. T., Welbeck Road, Birkdale, Southport 

Taylor, Rev. R., Bromfield, Carlisle 

Todd, Rev. H. M., St. Paul's Rectory, Silloth 



Ullock, Miss Mary, Quarry How, Windermere 
400 Watkin, Rev. J., 39, Spencer, Street, Carlisle 

Watson, William Henry, F.G.S., Braystones, Carnforth 
Wilson, Miss, The Rowans, Ambleside 
Wilson, T. Newby, The Landing, Ulverston 

Armes, Rev. G. B., The Vicarage, Cleator 

405 Brown, George Frederick, 28, Portland Square, Carlisle 
Carrick, William, Oak Bank, Scotby, Carlisle 
Deakin, Ernest Newton, Park House, Cheadle 
Elliot, J. G., 86, English Street, Carlisle 
Fairer, Christopher, Fairbank, Penrith 

410 Fothergill, John, Brownber, Ravenstonedale 
Fulton, J. S., Appleby 
Garnett, John, Windermere 
Graham, Robert, The Luham, Penrith 
Hartley, Mrs., Holm Garth, Morecambe 

415 Haverfield, F., F.S.A., Lancing College, Shoreham 
Hewitson, William, Town Clerk, Appleby 
Johnson, John Henry, The Mountains, Tunbridge Wells 
Mackey, M., Milton Street, Newcastle-on-Tyne 
Marshall, Reginald Dykes, Castlerigg Manor, Keswick 

420 McCormick, Rev. F. J., F.S.A., Scot., St. James, White- 
Metcalfe, Rev. R. W., Ravenstonedale 
Noble, Miss Elizabeth, Beckfoot, Penrith 
Park, James, Soutergate, Ulverston 
Powley, John, Langwathby, Penrith 

425 Remington, Rev. T. M., Aynsome, Cartmel 

Rivington, C. R., F.R.G.S., Castle Bank, Appleby 
Smith, C. Telford, Rothay Bank, Ambleside 
Towneley, William, Hard Cragg, Grange-over-Sands 
Whinfield, E. H., The Hollins, Gipsy Road, West 
Norwood, S.E. 

430 Williams, Rev. A. A., The Vicarage, Colton 

Williamson, Robert, 65, Crosby Street, Maryport 



Burra, Robert, Gate, Sedbergh 

Clayton, Nathaniel G., The Chesters, Humshaugh-on- 

Dobson, William, Tarn House, Brampton 
435 Johnson, Miss, Preston 

Whitehead, Charles H., Appleby 



The Society of Antiquaries, Burlington House, London 

The Society of Antiquaries of Scotland. 

Royal Society of Northern Antiquities, Copenhagen 

The Royal Archaeological Institute of Great Britain and 

Ireland, Oxford Mansions, Oxford Street, London 
The British Archaeological Association, 32, Sackville Street, 

Piccadilly, London 
The Dean and Chapter Library, Carlisle 
The British Museum 
The Bodleian Library, Oxford 
The University Library, Cambridge 
Trinity College, Dublin 
The Advocate's Library, Edinburgh 


The Oxford Archaeological Society (J. P. Earwaker, F.S.A., 

Merton Coll). 
The Lincoln Architectural Society (Rev. G. T. Harvey, 

F.S.A., Lincoln). 



The Kent Archaeological Society (The Rev. Canon Scott 

The Shropshire Archaeological Society (Rev. W. A. Leighton, 

The Society of Antiquaries, Newcastle-upon-Tyne (Robert 

Blair, F.S.A.) 
The Historic Society of Lancashire and Cheshire (R.. D. 

Radcliffe, M.A.) 
The Cambrian Archaeological Association, Liverpool (J. 

Romilly Allan, Esq.) 


The Dalston Transcript of 1589-1590 . 

The Parish Registers of Orton, Westmorland 

Notes on the Roman Itinera in Westmorland 

The Appleby Chained Books . 

The Appleby Charters 

Parish Accounts, Stanwix 

Note on Sandford's History of Cumberland 

The Brough Idol . 

Orton Old Hall, or Petty Hall, Orton . 

Excursions and Proceedings . 

The Roman Camp on Kreignthorpe (Cracken 

thorpe) Common, near Kirkbythore 
Kirkby Thore Church 
The Bears at Dacre. 
An Earthwork at Little Asby 
The Fonts of the Rural Deaneries of Gosforth 

and Whitehaven 
The Reeans of High Furness 
Some Illustrations of Home Life in Lonsdale 

North of the Sands, in the 17th and 18th 

centuries . 

The House of Percy, entitled Barons Lucy of 

Cockermouth . . . . 

The Hudlestons of Hutton John, the Hudlestons 

of Kelston, now of Hutton John, and the 

Hudlestons of Whitehaven 





































Jhtblirattons of t\jt {ftnmbrrlanb anb HSbsimorianb 
Antiquarian anb ^rdja'otorjical ^oririiT. 


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Vol. VII., complete in one part 

Vol. VIII., Parts I. and II 

Vol. IX., Parts I. and II 

Vol. X., complete in one part 

Vol. XL, Parts I. and II 

Index to the first seven Volumes 


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CASTLE, by the late Rev. William Gilpin, Vicar of Boldre, with 
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